AISI 1018 Carbon Steel: Forging Facts

CCarbon
0.15 – 0.20

Chemical Analysis
Mn Managanese
0.60 – 0.90 max
P Phosphorus
0.04 max
S Sulfur
0.050 max

C1018 is a general purpose carbon steel that is easily machined and welded and may be hardened by carburizing and by other surface – hardening methods.

AISI / SAE 1018 grade is a general purpose carbon steel suitable for surface hardening. It may, as required, be case hardened, welded and machined. Cold forming may be carried out, preferably from a spheroidized structure.

Forging AISI 1018 Carbon Steel

C1018 is forged from 2100 – 2300 º F down to a temperature in the area of 1650 – 1750 º F (1150*–1280 º C down to 900 – 950 º C.). The actual forging and finishing temperatures will depend on a number of factors, including overall reduction during forging and complexity of part being forged. Experience alone will determine near exact values for these two parameters. Parts are air cooled after forging.

Applications of AISI 1018

This grade of steel is used for forged motor shafts, hydraulic shafts and pump shafts, as well as machinery parts. It would be used for such applications in a surface-hardened condition.

Forging

C1018 is forged from around 2300ºF down to a temperature in the region of 1650ºF (1260ºC down to 900ºC.). The actual forging and finishing temperatures will depend on a number of factors, including overall reduction during forging and complexity of part being forged.

Experience alone will determine near exact values for these two parameters.  Parts are air cooled after forging.

Heat Treatment

A significant amount of this grade of steel is used in the as- forged condition, since its machinability in this condition has been found to be more than satisfactory.

Little is to be gained, at this carbon level, by a quenching treatment.

At this carbon level, annealing after forging may not be necessary, and depending upon the hardness after forging and the complexity of the part being forged, machining may be carried out on the as-forged parts. If parts are of complex shape and hence there are structural variations throughout the part, then normalizing is in order.

Annealing

Full annealing of, say, small C1018 forgings is carried out between 1575 and 1650 º F (860 – 900 º C) followed by furnace cooling at 50 º F (10 º C) per hour, to 1300 º F (700 º C) and air cooling.

Normalizing

Normalizing is seldom carried out on carbon contents at this level, but may be used prior to surface hardening. The normalizing temperature range for this grade is typically 1650 – 1700 º F (900 – 930 º C) followed by air cooling.

Hardening

This grade of steel is not normally subjected to hardening and tempering treatments as the hardness obtained from such treatments would not warrant their being performed. Carburizing might be carried out at 1620 – 1690 º F (880 – 920 º C,) and carbonitriding at 1470 – 1600 º F (800 – 875 º C,).

Hardening of the carburized case would be performed at 1430 – 1500 º F (780 – 820 º C.) followed by a water quench and a tempering treatment at 300 – 400 º F (150 – 200 º C) to improve case toughness with a minimum effect on its hardness. Case hardness values of Rc 58 may be obtained on carburized C1018.

Machinability

This grade might be machined following forging and air cooling. If machining of a forged part proves to be uneconomical, an annealing treatment at 1575 – 1650 º F (860 – 900 º C), – see annealing above – will allow optimum machinability.

Weldability

This grade of steel may be welded by all normal methods: low-carbon electrodes are recommended.

Low-hydrogen electrodes are recommended together with preheat at 300 – 500 º F (150 – 260 º C.) to be maintained during welding, Cool slowly and stress relieve where possible.

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