AISI 1035 Carbon Steel: Forging Facts & Characteristics

Chemical Analysis
C Carbon
0.32 – 0.38 max
Mn Managanese
0.60 – 0.90 max
P Phosphorus
0.04 max
S Sulfur
0.050 max

C1035 is a medium carbon, medium tensile steel supplied as forged or normalized. This steel shows good strength, toughness and wear resistance.

C1035 is a medium-carbon engineering steel that is suitable for flame or induction hardening. It is a versatile forging material with mechanical properties that are appropriate for a full range of applications. The C1035 can be readily welded and machined providing correct procedures are followed.

Forging AISI 1035 Carbon Steel

C1035 is forged from 2100 – 2300 º F down to 1600 – 1700 º F (1150*–1280 º C down to 870 – 925 º C.). The actual forging and finishing temperatures will depend on a number of factors, including overall reduction during forging and complexity of part being forged. Experience alone will determine near exact values for these two parameters. Parts are air cooled after forging.

Applications of AISI 1035

This grade of steel is used for forged parts where the strength and toughness of the material are appropriate. C1035 may be used for the manufacture of links and couplings, gears, forged shafts and axles. It may also be used for the production, by open die forging, of such diverse parts as a 4,000 lb hub for a mining shovel.

Heat Treatment

Heat treatment is carried out on this grade to render it suitable for machining and to impart to it specified mechanical properties.

Annealing

Full annealing of small C1035 forgings is carried out between 1550 and 1625 º F (840 – 890 º C) followed by furnace cooling at 50 º F (10 º C) per hour, to 1200 º F (650 º C) and air cooling.

Normalizing

The normalizing temperature range for this grade is typically 1600 – 1650 º F (870 – 900 º C,) Normalizing is followed by cooling in still air. When forgings are normalized before hardening and tempering or other heat treatment, the upper range of the normalizing temperature is used. When normalizing is the final treatment, the lower temperature range is used.

Hardening

Hardening of this grade is carried out from an austenitizing temperature of 1525 – 1575 º F (830 – 860 º C) and oil or water quenching.

Flame and induction hardening may be carried out by heating quickly to the desired case depth and quenching in water or oil. This should be followed by a tempering treatment at 300 – 400 º F (150 – 200 º C) to reduce stresses in the case without affecting its hardness. A surface hardness of Rc 50 may be obtained by this treatment.

Tempering

Tempering after normal hardening and oil or water quenching is carried out at 750 – 1260 º F (400 – 680 º C) to give the required mechanical properties as determined by practical experience.

Machinability

Machinability of C1035 is good providing the full annealing cycle described above is used, ensuring a coarse lamellar pearlite to coarse spheroidite microstructure.

Weldability

This grade is readily welded with the correct procedure. Welding in the through-hardened or flame or induction-hardened conditions is not recommended.

Low-hydrogen electrodes are recommended together with preheat at 300 – 500 º F (150 – 260 º C.) to be maintained during welding, Cool slowly and stress relieve where possible.

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