Forging Alloy Steel 3312 & 3316

AISI 3312 AISI 3316
C Carbon
0.08 – 0.13
C Carbon
0.14 – 0.19
Mn Manganese
0.45 – 0.60
Mn Manganese
0.45 – 0.60
P Phosphorus
0.025 max
P Phosphorus
0.025 max
S Sulfur
0.025 max
S Sulfur
0.025 max
Si Silicon
0.20 – 0.35
Si Silicon
0.20 – 0.35
Ni Nickel
3.25 – 3.75
Ni Nickel
3.25 – 3.75
Cr Chromium
1.40 – 1.75
Cr Chromium
1.40 – 1.75

General Characteristics of AISI 3312 & 3316

These two alloy steels are basically in the same family as 3310 grade, but have slightly higher carbon content. All three steels are case-hardening steels, and thanks to their nickel and chromium contents they show excellent strength and toughness properties following surface hardening and subsequent hardening and tempering.

Forging AISI 3312 & 3316

AISI 3312 & 3316 are forged at a start temperature of around 2200ºF (1205ºC) and could be forged down to approximately 1700ºF (925ºC.) They could be air cooled after forging.

AISI 3312 & 3316

Applications that use AISI 3312 & 3316 Forgings

AISI 3312 & 3316 are used in the production of components with large cross sections that require high toughness and core strength such as forged gears, crankshafts and heavy-duty gear shafts in aircraft and truck manufacture.

Heat Treatment

Annealing: AISI 3312 & 3316 would seldom be annealed prior to subsequent heat treatment, but they may be normalized to remove the effects of structural differences throughout a part.

Normalizing: 1700ºF (925ºC) and air cool.

Carburizing: The steels would be carburized at 1650-1740ºF (900-950ºC) followed by water quench for large components of simple shape only, otherwise oil quench.

Hardening: Following carburizing, the alloys would be austenitized at a temperature in the region of 1500 – 1550ºF (815 – 845ºC) and water quenched for large components of simple shape, otherwise oil quenched.

Tempering: Parts would be tempered at temperatures, based on past experience, that would result in the required mechanical properties.

Machinability: AISI 3312 & 3316 are readily machined from either an as-forged or normalized structure.

Weldability: The alloys may be readily welded, but only prior to case hardening and subsequent heat treatment.

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