B Elevation - The bottom level of the boiler firebox where two oil guns are located. The oil guns are used if the boiler needs extra steam while on oil fire.
BA - Batch Anneal
Babbitt - An antifriction metal alloy used for bearing inserts;made of tin,antimony,lead and copper.
Back Draft - Reverse taper which would prevent removal of a pattern from a mold or a core from a corebox.
Back End - 1) Usually refers to the entry end of process lines. 2) The outside lap 2) of the produced coil, or the inside lap of the consumed coil.
Back Gears - Gears fitted to a machine to increase the number of spindle speeds obtainable with a cone or step pulley belt drive.
Back Rake - The angular surface ground back from the cutting edge of cutting tools. On lathe cutting tools. The rake is positive if the face slopws down from the cutting edge toward the shank, and negative if the face sloopes upward toward the shank.
Backlash - The lost motion or looseness (play) between the faces of meshing gears or threads.
Back-up Balance - Cylinders that supply the force used to hold the back-up rolls up in place.
Back-up Roll - 1) Roll used as a support roll mainly for plater rolls. 2) Two rolls, one on top and one on bottom of the two work rolls which apply pressure and reduce the flexing of the work rolls.
Backer (back-up plate) - A tool or reinforcing part, which presses against the outer surface of an extrusion die, supporting it against the pressure of the extruding metal. The backer has an opening larger than the die aperture, allowing the extruded product to emerge without marring its soft surface.
Backing Board (Backing Plate) - A second bottom board on which molds are opened.
Backing Sand - The bulk of the sand in the flask. The sand compacted on top of the facing sand that covers the pattern.
Backoff - Removal of part of coil from entry end of unit; may be necessitated by a defect in coil or by a wreck in the mill, etc. Backoff weight is the part of the coil that is removed and not finished/produced.
Backward Extrusion - Forcing metal to flow in a direction opposite to the motion of a punch or die.
Backwardation - Market condition where the spot, or current price for a metal is higher than the three-month delivery price. This usually indicates immediate demand is perceived to be stronger than long-term demand. Not considered to be a "normal" market state (See Contango).
Bainite - A eutectoid transformation product of ferrite and a fine dispersion of carbide, generally formed at temperatures below 840 to 930 F (450 to 500 C): upper bainite is an aggregate containing parallel lath-shape units of ferrite, produces the so-called feathery appearance in optical microscopy, and is formed at temperatures above about 660 F (350 C); lower bainite consists of individual plate-shape units and is formed at temperatures below about 660 F (350 C). Also, a slender, needle-like (acicular) microstructure appearing in spring steel strip characterized by toughness and greater ductility than tempered Martensite. Bainite is a decomposition product of Austenite best developed at interrupted holding temperatures below those forming fine pearlite and above those giving Martensite.
Bake - Heat in an oven to a low controlled temperature to remove gases or to harden a binder.
Bake Hardenable Steel - A cold-rolled, low-carbon sheet steel used for automotive body panel applications. Because of the steels special processing, it has good stamping and strength characteristics and after paint is baked on, improved dent resistance.
Baked Core - A core which has been heated through sufficient time and temperature to produce the desired physical properties attainable from its oxidizing or thermal-setting binders.
Baked Strength - Compressive, shear, tensile or transverse strength of a mold sand mixture when baked at a temperature above 231 B0F (111 B0C) and then cooled to room temperature.
Balanced Steel - Steels in which the deoxidisation is controlled to produce an intermediate structure between a rimmed and killed steel, Sometimes referred to as semi-killed steels, they possess uniform properties throughout the ingot and amongst their applications are boiler plate and structural sections.
Ball Burnishing - A method of obtaining a high luster on small parts by rotating them in a wooden-lined barrel with water, burnishing soap, and stainless steel shot.
Baller Stick - Octagon-shaped wooden stick approximately 5' long. This stick is used in the baller area, to change burr mashers, to start a coil with a large ID, etc.
Balling Drum - A rotating drum that is used for adding moisture to the sinter mix in the Blast Furnace. Also, it enhances a balling action where the smaller sized materials adhere to larger materials.
Band - Refers to metal strap Signode band that is one half inch wide. This band is used to thread and pull the strip through the line.
Band Dispenser - Device that holds that roll of steel banding.
Band Saw Steel (Wood) - A hardened tempered bright polished high carbon cold rolled spring steel strip produced especially for use in the manufacture of band saws for sawing wood, non ferrous metals, and plastics. Usually carries some nickel and with a Rockwell value of approximately C40/45.
Band Wareroom - A storage area in Strip Steel used for storing hot bands (coil made from slab).
Band, Inside - A loose steel frame placed inside a removable flask to reinforce the sand at the parting line after the flask has been removed.
Bander - Machine located at each delivery reel to automatically place circumference bands around completed coils.
Banding Tool - Tool used to tighten a steel band around a coil.
Bandsaw - A power saw, the blade of which is a continuous,narrow,steel band having teeth on one edge and passing over two large pulley wheels.
Bar - Long steel products that are rolled from billets. Merchant bar and reinforcing bar (rebar) are two common categories of bars, where merchants include rounds, flats, angles, squares, and channels that are used by fabricators to manufacture a wide variety of products such as furniture, stair railings, and farm equipment. Rebar is used to strengthen concrete in highways, bridges and buildings (see Sheet Steel).
Bar, Flask - A rib in the cope of a tight flask to help support the sand.
Bare Spot - A location on the strip where coating did not adhere.
Bark - Surface of metal, under the oxide-scale layer, resulting from heating in an oxidizing environment. In the case of steel, such bark always suffers from decarburization.
Bars - A relatively long straight, rigid piece pf metal; long steel products rolled from billets into such shapes as squares,rectangles, rounds,angles,channels,hexagons,and tees. In steel, merchant bars include rounds,flats,angles,squares,and channels that are used by fabricators to manufacture a wide variety of products such as furniture,stair railings and farm equipment. Concrete reinforcing bar (rebar) is used to strengthen concrete in highways,bridges and buildings.
Base - The steel or concrete pedestal on which the coils are stacked during the batch annealing process.
Base Box - Unit of area of 112 sheets of tin mil products (tin plate, tin free steel or black plate) 14 by 20 inches, or 31,360 square inches. Tin Plate is sold, and carried in finished inventory, on a weight per unit area rather than on a thickness basis.
Base Metal - (1) The metal present in the largest proportion in an alloy; (2) the metal to be brazed, cut or welded; (3) after welding the part of the metal that was not melted during the process.
Base Metal Contamination - Dirt or other impurities in the steel strip.
Base Plate - A plate to which the pattern assemblies are attached and to which a flask is subsequently attached to form the mold container.
Base Type - Tin Mill term; Thickness divided by .00011. Also weight in pounds of one Base Box of Tin plate. In finished inventory base weight is specified instead of decimal thickness.
Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) - "WHAT A pear-shaped furnace, lined with refractory bricks, that refines molten iron from the blast furnace and scrap into steel. Up to 30% of the charge into the BOF can be scrap, with hot metal accounting for the rest. WHY BOFs, which can refine a heat (batch) of steel in less than 45 minutes, replaced open-hearth furnaces in the 1950s; the latter required five to six hours to process the metal. The BOF's rapid operation, lower cost and ease of control give it a distinct advantage over previous methods. HOW Scrap is dumped into the furnace vessel, followed by the hot metal from the blast furnace. A lance is lowered from above, through which blows a high-pressure stream of oxygen to cause chemical reactions that separate impurities as fumes or slag. Once refined, the liquid steel and slag are poured into separate containers. "
Basic Oxygen Process - (BOP) A process in which molten steel is produced in a furnace by blowing oxygen into molten iron, scrap and flux materials. The furnace is known as Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF).
Basket Screen - A first stage in-line water filter for water delivered from the New Blowing Room Pump Room to the Blast Furnace. The strainer contains an electric-driven rotary sieve that catches particulates and prevents them from entering the water system.
Bastard - Threads,parts,tools and sizes that are not standard, such as, Bastard Nuts, Bastard Plus, bastaard fittings and so forth. The term also refers to a standard coarse cut file.
Batch - Amount or quantity of core or mold sand or other material prepared at one time.
Batch Anneal - The process by which a large, stationary stack of steel coils (4 coils high) is subjected to a long heat-treating cycle. This process enables the cold-rolled sheet to fully recrystallize into the softest possible product conforming to customer specifications. Controlling the recrystallization process makes a fine-grained microstructure easy to obtain, and minimizes the tendencies for retention of directional properties of the rolled steel which could produce undesirable shapes in the stamping of a cylindrical part such as a can. Also see Anneal and Continuous Anneal.
Batch Oven - Oven use to bake a number of cores at one time.
Bath - Molten metal on the hearth of a furnace, in a crucible, or in a ladle.
Batten - A wooden bar or strip fastened to bottom or follow board for rigidity or to prevent distortion during ramming of the mold.
Bazooka - Performs functions of Galvanneal Furnace; set of torches on wheels used to shoot flames onto a strip to further heat it.
BE - Chemical symbol for Beryllium
Bead - 1)Half-round cavity in a mold, or half-round projection or molding on a casting, 2) a single deposit of weld metal produced by fusion.
Beam - The principal horizontal load-bearing member of a structure.
Beam and Sling - Tackle used in conjunction with a crane for turning over the cope or drag of a mold prior to assembly.
Bearing - Rollers and balls placed between moving parts to reduce friction and wear.-
Bearing Strength - The maximum bearing load at failure divided by the effective bearing area. In a pinned or riveted joint, the iffective area is calculated as the product of the diameter of the hole and the thickness of the bearing member.
Bed - One of the principal parts of a machine tool having accurately machined ways or bearing surfaces for supporting and aligning other parts of the machine. Stationary platen of a press to which the lower die assembly is attached.
Bed-In - Method whereby drag may be rammed in the pit or flask without necessity of rolling over. Process used in production of heavy castings.
Bedding - Sinking a pattern down into the sand to the desired position and ramming the sand around it.
Bedding a Core - Resting an irregularly shaped core on a bed of sand for drying.
Bell Mouth - The flaring or tapering of a machined hole, usually made at the entrance end because of misalignment or spring of the cutting tool.
Belly Roll - Roll used on the line to steady plate.
Belt Wrapper - Line equipment used in the Tin Mill for starting coils on prime or reject reels. The belt wrapper ensures a proper start.
Bench Rammer - A short rammer used by bench molders.
Bench-Blower - A small core-blowing machine, utilizing a removable sand magazine and blow heat.
Bench Grinder - A small grinding machine for shaping and sharpening the cutting edges of tools.
Bench Lathe - A small lathe mounted on a bench or table.
Bench Work - Work done primarily at a bench with hand tools. Occasionlly suplemented by small power-driven tools.
Bend Test - Various tests which is used to ascertain the toughness and ductility of a metal product, in which the material is bent around its axis and/ or around an outside radius. A complete test might specify such a bend to be both with and against the direction of grain. For testing, samples should be edge filed to remove burrs and any edgewise cracks resulting from slitting or shearing. If a vice is to be employed, then you must line the jaws with some soft metal, to permit a flow of the metal in the piece being tested.
Bending - A preliminary forging operation to give the piece approximately the correct shape for subsequent forming.
Bending Angle - A 'V-shaped' piece of angle iron attached to the rear of the coil car in the Strip Steel, which is used to help the operator put bends into the front end of a coil.
Bending Strength - Upper limit of normal stress of a beam at which fracture or excessive plastic deformation occurs.
Bentonite - A colloidal clay derived from volcanic ash and employed as a binder in connection with synthetic sands, or added to ordinary natural (clay-bonded) sands where extra strength is required.
Beryllium Copper - An alloy of copper and 2-3% beryllium with optionally fractional percentages of nickel or cobalt. Alloys of this series show remarkable age-hardening properties and an ultimate hardness of about 400 Brinell (Rockwell C43). Because of such hardness and good electrical conductivity, beryllium-copper is used in electrical switches, springs, etc.
Bevel - Angle formed between the prepared edge of the end of tube and a plane perpendicular to the surface. Standard pipe bevel is 30 degrees.
BHN - Brinell Hardness Number
BI - Chemical symbol for Bismuth
Bi-Coil - Also BY-COIL. Tin Mill term. Customers buy "by coil" or "bi-coil" rather than cut sheets.
Bifluoride Feeder - A machine in the Tin Mill that automatically puts bifluoride into the plater bath.
Big Winch - The tool used to spot (or position) the rail cars for unloading. It is located on the north end of the unloading area.
Billet - (1) A semi-finished section hot rolled from a metal ingot, with a rectangular cross section usually ranging from 16 to 36 in., the width being less than twice the thickness. Where the cross section exceeds 36 in., the term bloom is properly but not universally used. Sizes smaller than 16 in. are usually termed bars; a solid semi-finished round or square product which has been hot worked by forging, rolling, or extrusion. (2) A semi-finished, cogged, hot rolled or continuous-cast metal product of uniform section, usually rectangular with radiused corners. Billets are relatively larger than bars.
Billet container - The part of the extrusion press into which the billet to be extruded is placed.
Bimetal - Casting, usually centrifugal, made of two different metals, fused together.
Binder - The bonding agent used as an additie to mold or core sand to impart strength of plasticity in a dry state.
Bismuth - Chemical symbol Bi. A soft, course cystalline heavy metal with a silvery white color and pinkish tinge; usually produced as a by-product of copper,leaad and other metals. Has a thermal conductivity lower than all other metals except mercury. Used as alloying agent but leading use is in pharmaceuticals.
Bit, Tool (cutter) - A hardened steel bar or plate that is shaped accordidng to the operation to be performed and the material to be machined.
Black Pipe Denotes lacquered OD finish (as opposed to bare or galvanized) -
Black Iron - Uncoated steel product.
Black Oil Tempered Spring Steel Strip (Scaleless Blue) - A flat cold rolled usually .70/.80 medium high carbon steel strip, blue-black in color, which has been quenched in oil and drawn to desired hardness. While it looks and acts much like blue tempered spring steel and carries a Rockwell hardness of C44/47, it has not been polished and is lower in carbon content. Used for less exacting requirements than clock spring steel, such as snaps, lock springs, hold down springs, trap springs, etc. It will take a more severe bend before fracture than will clock spring, but it does not have the same degree of spring-back.
Black Plate - A light weight or a thin uncoated steel sheet or strip so called because of its dark oxide coloring prior to pickling. It is manufactured by two different processes. (1) Form sheet bar on single stand sheet mills or sheet mills in tandem. This method is now almost obsolete. (2) On modern, high speed continuous tandem cold reduction mills from coiled hot rolled pickled wide strip into ribbon wound coils to finished gage. Sizes range from 12 to 32 in width, and in thicknesses from 55 lbs. to 275 lbs. base box weight. It is used either as is for stampings, or may be enameled or painted or tin or terne coated.
Black Pipe Denotes lacquered OD finish (as opposed to bare or galvanized) - NULL
Blackening Scab - A form of casting defect related to an improper coating rather than to the sand.
Blacking Hole - Irregular-shaped surface cavities in a casting containing carbonaceous matter. Caused by spilling off of the blacking from the mold surface.
Blank - Solid metal disk or plate inserted into a line to prevent the flow of gases or liquids through the line.
Blank - A piece of stock (also call a slug or multiple) from which a forging is to be made.
Blanking - An early step in preparing flat-rolled steel for use by an end user. A blank is a section of sheet that has the same outer dimensions as a specified part (such as a car door or hood) but that has not yet been stamped. Steel processors may offer blanking for their customers to reduce their labor and transportation costs; excess steel can be trimmed prior to shipment.
Blast Cleaning (blasting) - A process for cleaning or finishing metal objects by use of an air jet or centrifugal wheel that propels abrasive particles (grit, sand, or shot) against the surfaces of the workpiece at high velocity.
Blast Furnace - 1) A furnace in which solid fuel (limestone, coke, iron ore) is combined with high-pressure, hot air blast (120,000 psi) to smelt ore in a continuous process (They are never stopped. They can be slowed down or idled). A Blast Furnace in the iron and steel industry is used to produce liquid iron.
Blast Furnace Gas - By-product gas created by the iron making process which is used as fuel for the boilers.
Blasting (Blast Cleaning) - A process for cleaning or finishing metal objects by use of an air blast or centrifugal wheel that throws abrasive particles against the surface of the work pieces. Small, irregular particles of steel or iron are used as the abrasive in grit blasting, and steel or iron balls in shot blasting.
Bleeder - A defect wherein a casting lacks completeness due to moltn metal draining or leaking out of some part of the mold cavity after pouraing has stopped.
Blind Bole - A hole made in a workpiece that does not pass through it.
Blister - 1) Coating defect consisting of the formation of bubbles in a coating, which appear as hemispherical elevations. The blisters are hollow, and are usually caused by entrapped air or solvent. 2) A raised spot on the surface on the surface of metal due to expansion of gas which causes a subsurface metal separation such as inclusions and small laminations.
Blister Steel - High-carbon steel produced by carburizing wrought iron. The bar, originally smooth, is covered with small blisters when removed from the cementation (carburizing) furnace.
Block - The forging operation in which metal is progressively formed to general desired shape and contour by means an impression die (used when only one block operation is scheduled).
Block, Jo - Shop name for a Johnnson gage block, a very accurate measuring device.
Block Off - 1) Wooden separators which are used at both the bottom of a lift and between IPM's (bundles) of a lift. 2) The act of placing 4x4s between the lifts in the piler's box.
Blocking - A coating defect consisting of the adhesion of two adjoining coatings or materials. Usually this term refers to the coating on one side of coated plate being tacky or sticky and adhering to the adjacent sheet.
Blocker - Preform die or impression, used when part cannot be made in a single operation.
Bloom - (1) Ancient Definition: iron produced in a solid condition directly by the reduction of ore in a primitive furnace. The carbon content is variable but usually low. Also known as bloomery iron. The earliest iron making process, but still used in underdeveloped countries. (2) Modern Definition: a semi-finished hot rolled steel product, rectangular in section, usually produced on a blooming mill but sometimes made by forging.
Blow - The impact or force delivered by one workstroke of the forging equipment.
Blow Back - A coating defect consisting of a lower coating film weight on the bottom of the coated sheet caused by high velocity air in the oven. Blow back usually occurs with high solids coatings which have little solvent to evaporate and "set" the film.
Blow Down - Process that rids boiler feed water of solids and maintains the proper chemical balance of the feed water. Blow down can also be used to rid drum(s) of excess water.
Blowhole - A defect in a casting caused by trapped steam or gas.
Blue Annealing - Heating hot rolled ferrous sheet in an open furnace to a temperature within the transformation range and then cooling in air, in order to soften the metal. The formation of a bluish oxide on the surface is incidental.
Blue Brittleness - Brittleness exhibited by some steels after being heated to some temperature within the range of 300 (degrees) to 650 (degrees) F, and more especially if the steel is worked at the elevated temperature. Killed steels are virtually free of this kind of brittleness.
Blue Print - A pen or ink line drawing reproduced (printed) on sensitized paper by direct exposure.
Blue Vitriol Copper sulfate - A layout solution which turns a copper color when applied to a clean,polished metal surface.
Bluing - Subjecting the scale-free surface of a ferrous alloy to the action of air, steam, or other agents at a suitable temperature, thus forming a thin blue film of oxide and improving the appearance and resistance to corrosion. NOTE: This term is ordinarily applied to sheet, strip, or finished parts, It is used also to denote the heating of springs after fabrication in order to improve their properties.
Blush - A coating defect consisting of the whitening of a cured film which results in a translucent or opaque appearance with accompanying loss of gloss. Blushing usually occurs during the pasteurization or steam processing of films which are undercured or water sensitive.
Boil - Agitation of a bath of metal caused by the liberation of a gas beneath its surface. May be deliberately induced by the addition of oxidizing material to a bath containing excess carbon. In the later case it is called a carbon boil and CO or CO2 are liberated.
Boiler - A closed vessel in which water, is transformed into steam at a given pressure and temperature under controlled conditions.
Bolster (die block) - A tool or reinforcing part which supports the backer-which, in turn, supports an extruding die against the pressure of extrusion.
Bond - The material that holds the abrasive grains together to form a grinding wheel.
Bonderized Coating - A thin film of phosphate pretreatment applied to a steel surface (bare or zinc coated) to enhance paintability.
Bonding Clay (Bonderise) - Any clay suitable for use as a bonding material.
Bore - To enlarge and finish the surface of a cylindrical hole by the action of a rotating boring bar (cutting tool) or by the action of a stationary tool pressed (fed) against the surface as the part is rotated.
Boring Bar (cuffer bar) - A combination tool holder and shank.
Boring Tool - A cutting tool in which the tool bit,the boring bar and in some cases the tool holder are incorporated.
Boron ( chemical symbol B) - Element N. 5 of the periodic system. Atomic weight 10.82. It is gray in color, ignites at about 1112 (degrees) F. and burns with a brilliant green flame, but its melting point in a non-oxidizing atmosphere is about 4000 (degrees) F. Boron is used in steel in minute quantities for one purpose only- to increase the hardenability as in case hardening and to increase strength and hardness penetration.
Boron Steels - The addition of boron in the range 0.0005-0.005% to certain steels increases the hardenability. A range of boron steels is now listed in the current BS 970 and are widely used for the production of cold headed fastenings.
Boss - A projection or an enlarged section of a casting through which a hole may be machine.
Bottom Die - The stationary half-die.
Bottom Roll - Submerged roll in the pot used to keep the strip submerged in the pot.
Bottom Up - Reversing the wrap of a coil putting the top surface on the bottom.
Bow - The lateral deviation from straightness
Box - Interanl (female) threaded end.
Box Annealing - A process of annealing a ferrous alloy in a suitable closed metal container, with or without packing material, in order to minimize oxidation. The charge is usually heated slowly to a temperature below the transformation range, but sometimes above or within it, and is then cooled slowly.
Brake - A piece of equipment used for bending sheet; also called a bar folder. If operated manually, it is called a hand brake; if power driven, it is called a press brake.
Brake Press Bending - An operation which produces various degree bends when fabricating parts from steel.
Brass - An alloy that is 70% copper,30% zinc. One of the most widely used of the copper-zinc alloys; malleable and ductile; excellent cold-working but poor hot-working and machining properties; excellent for soft-soldering; good for silver alloy brazing or oxyacetylene welding, but fair for resistance or carbon-arc welding. Used for drawn cartridges, tubes, eyelets machine items and snap fasteners.
Brazing - Joining metals by fusion of nonferrous alloys that have melting points above 800 F (425C), but lower than those of the metals being joined. May be accomplished by a torch. Filler metal is ordinarily in rod form in torch brazing; whereas in furnace and dip brazing the work material is first assembled and the filler metal may then be applied as wire, washers, clips, bands, or may be bonded, as in brazing sheet.
Break Test (for tempered steel) - A method of testing hardened and tempered high carbon spring steel strip wherein the specimen is held and bent across the grain in a vice-like calibrated testing machine. Pressure is applied until the metal fractures at which point a reading is taken and compared with a standard chart of brake limitations for various thickness ranges.
Breakage - Cracks or separation of the steel.
Breaker - Uncoiler rolls through which the strip passes; composed of a mandrel and leveling rolls which unwind the strip prior to processing through the Pickler. Breaker rolls assist in breaking up the Hot Mill surface scale.
Breakout - An accident caused by the failure of the walls of the hearth of the furnace resulting in liquid iron or slag (or both) flowing uncontrolled out of the blast furnace.
Bridge - In extrusion: the part of an extrusion bridge die that supports a void-forming mandrel. During extrusion, the metal divides and flows around the bridge, reuniting as it is extruded through the die orifice. The resulting weld line can be detected upon microscopic examination, but the extrusion appears functionally and visually seamless.
Bridle - A set of rolls used to maintain tension on the strip as it goes through the line.
Bridle Rolls - A series of neoprene or steel rolls.
Bridle Snubber - The roll above the bridle rolls used to thread the strip. Also is used to steer the strip through the bridle.
Bridle Unit - A three-roll cluster used to control line tension at strategic locations on the line.
Bridling - The cold working of dead soft annealed strip metal immediately prior to a forming, bending, or drawing operation. A process designed to prevent the formulation of Luder's lines. Caution-Bridled metal should be used promptly and not permitted to (of itself) return to its pre-bridled condition.
Bright Annealing - A process carried out usually in a controlled furnace atmosphere, so surface does not oxidize, remaining bright.
Bright Basic Wire - Bright steel wire, slightly softer than Bright Bessemer Wire. Used for round head wood screws, bolts and rivets, electric welded chain, etc.
Bright Bessemer Wire - Stiff bright wire of hard temper. Normally wire is drawn down to size without annealing.
Bright Dipping - Chemical polishing of aluminum, often by treatment with a mixture of nitric acid and phosphoric acid, yielding a mirror-shiny (specular) highly reflective surface. It is almost always followed by anodizing to protect the surface and provide some choice of color.
Bright Drawing - The process of drawing hot rolled steel through a die to impart close dimensional tolerances, a bright scale free surface and improved mechanical properties. The product is termed bright steel.
Brine - A saltwater solution for quenching or cooling when heat treating steel.
Brinell Hardness - The hardness of a metal or part, as represented by the number obtained from the ratio between the load applied on the spherical area of the impression made by a steel ball forced into the surface of the material tested.
Brinell Hardness Number - The value of hardness of a metal on an arbitrary scale representing kg/mm2, determined by measuring the diameter of the impression made by a ball of given diameter applied under a known load. Values are expressed in Brinell Hardness Numbers, BHN
Brinell Hardness Testing - Method of determining the hardness of materials; involves impressing a hardened ball of specified diameter into the material surface at a known pressure (10-mm ball, 500-kg load for aluminum alloys). The Brinell hardness number results from calculations involving the load and the spherical area of the ball impression. Direct-reading testing are generally used for routine inspection of forgings, and as a heat treat control function.
Brite - 1) Regular galvanize coating (not minimized spangle or JP). 2) Rolls that have no grit; smooth finish on surface of steel.
Brittle Fracture - Fracture with little or no plastic deformation.
Brittle Inter-metallic Layer - An iron-zinc alloy layer formed between the steel substrate and the free zinc of galvanized coatings.
Broach - A long, tapered cutting tool with serrations which,when forced through a hole or across a surface, cuts a desired shape or size.
Broaching - Smoothing machined holes or outside surfaces of castings by drawing pushing on or more broaches (special cutting tools) through the roughed out hole.
Bronze - An alloy containing 90% copper and 10% tin. Used for screws, wire, hardware, wear plates, bushings and springs; it is somewhat stronger than copper and brass and has equal or better ductility.
Bruise - A mark transferred to the strip surface from a defective process roll. Similar to dent or punchmark.
BTC - Buttress threaded and coupled
Buckles - Appeaars like a series of waves and are created during rolling as a result of mechanical misalignment or cross-section irregularities in supply coil.
Buff - To polish A smooth finish of high luster with a cloth or fabric wheel to which a compund has been added.
Build Up Coil - A coil made by putting together two or more coils to make one max coil or one shippable coil.
Builtup Plate - "A pattern plate of suitable material, with the cope pattern mounted on or attached to one side; the drag pattern may be attached to the other side or to a separate mounting. See Matchplate "
Bulk Density - The ratio of the weight of a material to its over-all volume (including any inherent porosity).
Bull Gear - The large crank gear of a shaper.
Bundle - Specific number of sheets which equals 1 unit of production. Number is determined by multiplying sheets/Packages/BUNDLE. For example, an order calls for 112 sheets/package. According to the maximum height allowed for a lift. Therefore, multiplying 15 packages X 112 sheets 3D 1680 sheets/bundle.
Burn - 1) Process of cutting metal by a stream of fuel and oxygen, 2) to permanently damage a metal or alloy by heating to cause either incipient melting or intergranular oxidation.
Burn-On-Sand - Sand adhering to the surface of the casting that is extremely difficult to remove.
Burn-Out - Firing a mold at a high temperature to remove pattern material residue.
Burning - (1) Permanently damaging a metal or alloy by heating to cause either incipient melting or intergranular oxidation. (2) In grinding getting the work hot enough to cause discoloration or to change the microstructure by tempering or hardening.
Burnishing - Developing a smooth finish on a metal by tumbling or rubbing with a polished hand tool.
Burnt Rubber - Small or large black spots that generally show up on surface and are generally caused by pickling steel too hot.
Burnthrough - In shell molding, resin burned out too soon.
Burr - The very subtle ridge on the edge of strip steel left by cutting operations such as slitting, trimming, shearing, or blanking. For example, as a steel processor trims the sides of the sheet steel parallel or cuts a sheet of steel into strips, its edges will bend with the direction of the cut.
Burr Mashers - Devices used to remove build up on edge of strip after the slitting process.
Burst - Internal pressure at which a tube will yield-often tested hydrostatically
Busheling - A widely traded form of steel scrap consisting of sheet clips and stampings from metal production. Bushel baskets were used to collect the material through World War II, giving rise to the term.
Bushing - A sleeve or a lining for a bearing or a drill jig to guard against wear.
Bust Coil - Coils removed from the off-gauge reel. The BUST (build up side trimmer) coil contains defects (gauge variation and quality defects) and off-spec widths.
Butt end - The residual portion of an extrusion billet that is not forced through the die at the end of the extrusion cycle.
Butt Weld - Weld made to join two strip ends set against each other.
Butt-Weld Pipe - The standard steel pipe used in plumbing. Heated skelp is passed continuously through welding rolls, which form the tube and squeeze the hot edges together to make a solid weld.
Butyl Stearate - (BSO)A lubricant applied on electrolytic chromium coated steel
By Coil - Selling term which refers to product sold in the form of a coil vs. cut plate. "Bi Coil" is also used in production to refer to coils vs. cut plate
By-Pass - Manual control used to by-pass automatic valve if it fails or in an emergency.
Bamboo Grain Structure - A structure in wire or sheet in which the boundaries of the grains tend to be aligned normal to the long axis and to extend completely through the thickness.
Banded Structure - Appearance of a metal showing parallel bands in the direction of rolling or working.
Banding - Inhomogeneous distribution of alloying elements or phases aligned in filaments or plates parallel to the direction of working.
Basic Oxygen Process - A steel making process wherein oxygen of the highest purity is blown onto the surface of a bath of molten iron contained in a basic lined and ladle shaped vessel. The melting cycle duration is extremely short with quality comparable to Open Hearth Steel.
Basic Steel - Steel melted in a furnace with a basic bottom and lining and under a slag containing an excess of a basic substance such as magnesia or lime.
Bath Annealing - Is immersion is a liquid bath (such as molten lead or fused salts) held at an assigned temperature-when a lead bath is used, the process is known as lead annealing.
Bauxite - The only commercial ore of aluminum, corresponding essentially to the formula Al2O3xH2O.
Beading - Raising a ridge on sheet metal.
Bearing Load - A compressive load supported by a member, usually a tube or collar, along a line where contact is made with a pin, rivet, axle, or shaft.
Bend Radius - The inside radius of a bent section,
Bessemer Process - A process for making steel by blowing air through molten pig iron contained in a refractory lined vessel so that the impurities are thus removed by oxidation.
Billet - A solid semi-finished round or square product that has been hot worked by forging, rolling, or extrusion. An iron or steel billet has a minimum width or thickness of 1 1/2 in. and the cross-sectional area varies from 2 1/4 to 36 sq. in. For nonferrous metals, it may also be a casting suitable for finished or semi-finished rolling or for extrusion.
Binary Alloy - An alloy containing two elements, apart from minor impurities, as brass containing the two elements copper and zinc.
Black Annealing - A process of box annealing or pot annealing ferrous alloy sheet, strip or wire after hot working and pickling.
Blast Furnace - A vertical shaft type smelting furnace in which an air blast is used, usually hot, for producing pih iron. The furnace is continuous in operation using iron ore, coke, and limestone as raw materials which are charged at the top while the molten iron and slag are collected at the bottom and are tapped out at intervals.
Blister - A defect in metal, on or near the surface, resulting from the expansion of gas in a subsurface zone. Very small blisters are called pinheads or pepper blisters.
Bloom - A semi-finished hot rolled product, rectangular in cross section, produced on a blooming mill. For iron and steel, the width is not more than twice the thickness, and the cross-sectional area is usually not less than 36 sq. in. Iron and steel blooms are sometimes made by forging.
Bloomery - A primitive furnace used for direct reduction of ore to iron.
Blooming-Mill - A mill used to reduce ingots to blooms, billets slabs, sheet-bar etc.,
Blowhole - A cavity which was produced during the solidification of metal by evolved gas, which in failing to escape is held in pockets.
Blue Brittleness - Reduced ductility occurring as a result of strain aging, when certain ferrous alloys are worked between 300 and 700 (degrees) F. This phenomenon may be observed at the working temperature or subsequently at lower temperatures.
Body-Centered - Having the equivalent lattice points at the corners of the unit cell, and at its center; sometimes called centered, or space-centered.
Bonderizing - The coating of steel with a film composed largely of zinc phosphate in order to develop a better bonding surface for paint or lacquer.
Bottle Top Mold - Ingot mold, with the top constricted; used in the manufacture of capped steel, the metal in the constriction being covered with a cap fitting into the bottle-neck, which stops rimming action by trapping escaping gases.
Box Annealing - Annealing a metal or alloy in a sealed container under conditions that minimize oxidation. In box annealing a ferrous alloy, the charge is usually heated slowly to a temperature below the transformation range, but sometimes above or within it, and is then cooled slowly; this process is also called close annealing or pot annealing.
Box Annealing - A process of annealing a ferrous alloy in a closed metal container, with or without packing materials, in order to minimize the effects of oxidation. The charge is normally heated slowly to a temperature below the transformation range, but occasionally above or within it, and then is slowly cooled.
Brale - A diamond penetrator, conical in shape, used with a Rockwell hardness tester for hard metals.
Brasses - Copper base alloys in which zinc is the principal alloying element. Brass is harder and mechanically stronger than either of its alloying elements copper or zinc. It is formable and ductile; develops high tensile strength with cold-working and is not heat treatable.
Braze Welding - A family of welding procedures where metals are joined by filler metal that has a melting temperature below the solidus of the parent metal, but above 840 (450 C).
Bright Annealed Wire - Steel wire bright drawn and annealed in controlled non-oxidizing atmosphere so that surface oxidation is reduced to a minimum and the surface remains relatively bright.
Bright Annealing - The process of annealing in a protective atmosphere so as to prevent discoloration of the bright surface desired.
Bright Dip - An acid solution into which pieces are dipped in order to obtain a clean, bright surface.
Brinell Hardness Test - A common standard method of measuring the hardness of materials. The smooth surface of the metal is subjected to indentation by a hardened steel ball under pressure. The diameter of the indentation, in the material surface, is then measured by a microscope and the hardness value is read from a chart or determined by a prescribed formula.
Brittle Fracture - Fracture preceded by little or negligible plastic deformation.
Brittleness - The tendency of a metal or material to fracture without undergoing appreciable plastic deformation.
Broaching - Multiple shaving, accomplished by pushing a tool with stepped cutting edges along the piece, particularly through holes.
Bronze - Primarily an alloy of copper and tin, but additionally, the name is used when referring to other alloys not containing tin, for example, aluminum bronze, manganese bronze, and beryllium bronze.
Brown & Sharp Gages (B&S) - A standard series of sizes refered to by numbers, in which the diameter of wire or thickness of sheet metal is generally produced and which is used in the manufacture of brass, bronze, copper, copper-base alloys and aluminum. These gage numbers have a definite relationship to each other. In this system, the decimal thickness is reduced by 50% every six gage numbers- while temper is expressed by the number of B&S gage numbers as cold reduced in thickness from previous annealing. For each B&S gage number in thickness reduction, where is assigned a hardness value of 1/4 hard.
Buckle - Bulges and/ or hollows occurring along the length of the metal with the edges remaining otherwise flat.
Buffer - A substance added to aqueous solutions to maintain a constant hydrogen-ion concentration, even in the presence of acids or alkalis.
Burning - Heating a metal beyond the temperature limits allowable for the desired heat treatment, or beyond the point where serious oxidation or other detrimental action begins.
Burnishing - Smoothing surfaces through friction between the material and material such as hardened metal media.
Burnt - A definition applying to material which has been permanently damaged by over-heating.
Burr - Roughness left by a cutting operation such as slitting, shearing, blanking , etc.
Butcher Saw Steel - A hardened, tempered, and polished high carbon spring steel strip material (carbon content is generally higher than that of a material used for wood band saw applications) with a Rockwell value of roughly C47/49.
Butt Welding - Joining two edges or ends by placing one against the other and welding them.