E.C.(orEC) alloy or grade - Electrical conductor aluminum, an alloy specifically formulated for good electrical conductivity; it is about 99.5% aluminum
E.C.A. Number - Engineering Corporation of America -- This is the computerized annealing sequence number used by the Firing Model.
Easy Open End - A convenience feature can end designed to be opened by utilizing an integral tab opener to tear the container lid along a tear line formed in the lid.
Eccentricity - The degree to which two forms fail to share a common center; for example, in a pipe or tube whose inside is off-center toth regard to the outside. In hollow extrusions: the difference between the maximum and minimum wall thickness at any single cross-section. The degree of eccentricity can be expressed by a plus or minus wall thickness tolerance.
ECCS - Electrolytic Chromium Coated Sheets.
Eccentric - A circle not having a geometric center. Also, a device such as a crankshaft or a cam for converting rotary motion to reciprocating motion.
Economizer - A specially designed bank of boiler tubes used to heat the boiler feed water before it enters the boiler drum. Boiler exhaust gases pass across the economizers which are located in the exhaust ductwork and the heat is transferred to the feed water. Preheating of the feed water helps to reduce boiler fuel requirements.
Economizer Recirculator - Line that connects waterwall to economizer to ensure positive flow through economizer so as to not allow steam in the economizer during O2 blow.
Eddy-Current Testing - Nondestructive testing method in which eddy-curent flow is induced in the test object. Changes in the flow caused by variations in the object are reflected into a nearby coil or coils for subsequent analysis by suitable instrumentation and techniques.
Edge Break - A condition caused by an uneven roll surface. It is seen on the edges of a coil, not across the full width of the coil.
Edge Buckle - Edge buckle is similar to center buckle except that the condition occurs in one, or both edges, of the strip and is generally confined to a narrow portion of the width.
Edge Buildup - Condition that results when burred or damaged plate causes the edge of the coil to be higher in coating than the center of the coil.
Edge Filing - A method whereby the raw or slit edges of strip metal are passed or drawn one or more times against a series of files, mounted at various angles. This method may be used for deburring only or filing to a specific contour including a completely rounded edge.
Edge Rolling (Edge Conditioning) - Rolling a strip of steel to smooth the edges. By removing the burr off the coil, it is safer for customers to manipulate.
Edge Wave - A condition in the band of steel where the edges (in the direction of rolling) are longer than the center.
Edges - Many types of edges can be produced in the manufacture of flat rolled metal products. Over the years the following types of edges have become recognized as standard in their respective fields. . Copper Base Alloys- Slit, Slit and Edge Rolled, Sheared, Sawed, Machined or Drawn . Sheet Steels or Aluminum Sheet- Mill Edge, Slit Edge or Sheared Edge. . Strip Steels and Stainless Strip . No. 1 Edge A- Smooth, uniform, round or square edge, either slit or filed or slit and edge rolled as specified, width tolerance +/- .005. . No. 2 Edge- A natural sound mill edge carried through from the hot rolled band. Has not been slit, filed, or edge rolled. Tolerances not closer than hot-rolled strip limits. . No. 3 Edge - Square, produced by slitting only. Not filed. Width tolerances close. . No. 4 Edge - A round edge produced by edge rolling either from a natural mill edge or from slit edge strip. Not as perfect as No. 1 edge. Width tolerances liberal. . No. 5 Edge - An approximately square edge produced by slitting and filing or slitting and rolling to remove burr. . No. 6 Edge - A square edge produced by square edge rolling, generally from square edge hot-rolled occasionally from slit strip. Width tolerances and finish not as exancting as No. 1 edge.
Effluent - A combination of water and particulates pulled from exhaust gases that is sent to Hydromation for treatment.
Ejector Pins - Moveable pins in tahe pattern die tha tpush to remove cast pattern form the dies.
Elastic Deformation - Stretching of the material below the point at which a permanent "set" takes place. That is, in the range where the metal acts spring-like or elastic.
Elastic Limit - "Maximum stress that a material will withstand without permanent deformation. See Yield Strength "
Elastic Resistance Welded Pipe - ERW pipe is made from strips of hot-rolled stee, which sre passed through forming rolls and welded. While seamless pipe is traditionally stronger and more expensive than ERW pipe, ERW technology is improving and the technique now accounts for approximately 48% of annual tonnage shipments of oil country tublular goods.
Elasticity - The property of recovering original shape and dimensions upon removal of a deforming force.
Electocleaning (Electrolytic Brightening) - An anodic treatment. A cleaning, polishing, or oxidizing treatment i which the specimen or work is made the anode in a suitable electrolyte; an inert metal is used as cathode and a potential is applied.
Electric Furnace Steel - Steel made in any furnace where heat is generated electrically, almost always by arc. Because of relatively high cost, only tool steels and other high-value steels are made by the electric furnace process.
Electric Header Valve - An electric valve that will isolate a blower from the rest of the blowers that are on line.
Electric Shears - Tool used to cut heavy gauge steel.
Electric-arc furnace - (EAF or EF) An economical method of steelmaking that is energized by an electric arc flowing between two bottom electrodes. Furnace charges consist of purchased scrap.
Electric Furnace Steel - Steel made in any furnace where heat is generated electrically, almost always by arc. Because of relatively high coast,only tool steels and other high value steels are made by the electric furnace process
Electrical Precipitator - In air pollution control, the use of electrodes in stack emissions emitting high voltage; particles 0.1 micron and smaller can be attached and collected at discharge electrode.
Electrical steel - Steel that includes silicon. The silicon content allows the steel to minimize energy loss during electrical applications. (See Silicon Electrical Steel)
Electrochemical - Pertaining to chemical reactions induced by an electric current, such as electrolysis or electroplating
Electrochemical Corrosion - "(Contact corrosion, Electrolytic corrosion, Galvanic corrosion) Localized corrosion from exposure of an assembly of dissimilar metals in contact or coupled with one another, i.e., electrochemical action. "
Electrode - Compressed graphite or carbon cylinder or rod used to conduct electric current in electric arc furnaces, arc lamps, carbon arc welding, etc.
Electrodeposition - Application of a coating by immersing the parts in a bath of water containing resin, electrolytic stabilizers and pigments. An electric current is passed through the bath using the parts as anodes, plating them with resins and colors.
Electrogalvanized - Zinc plating process whereby the molecules on the positively charged zinc anode attach to the negatively charged sheet steel. The thickness of the zinc coating is readily controlled. By increasing the electric charge or slowing the speed of the steel through the plating area, the coating will thicken
Electro-Galvanizing - Galvanizing by Electro deposition of zinc on steel
Electrolysis - The separation of a chemical compound into its components by passing an electric current through it.
Electrolyte - A dissolved or fused substance capable of conducting an electric current; examples include the molten solution electrolysed in an aluminum reduction cell, or the acid solution in a wet-cell battery
Electrolytic Galvanized - Cold Rolled or Black Plate to which a coating of zinc is applied by electro-deposition; used for applications in which corrosion resistance and paintability is a primary concern.
Electrolytic Tin Plate - (ETP) 1) Light-gauge, low-carbon, cold reduced steel on which tin has been electrodeposited. 2) Black plate coated with Tin Sn electron deposition.
Electron Beam Microprobe Analyzer - An instrument for selective chemical analysis of a small volume of material. An electron beam bombards the area of interest and x-radiation thereby emitted is analyzed in a spectrometer.
Electron Microprobe Analyzer - An instrument for selective analysis of a microscopic area, in which an electron beam bombards the point of interest in Vacuo at a given energy level. Intensity of backscatter is measured to interpret which chemical elements are present, and by scanning a large area the microprobe can analyze chemical composition and indicate the distribution of an element.
Electroplating - The production of a thin coating of one metal on another by electodeposition. It is very extensively used in industry and is continuing to enlarge its useful functions. Various plated metal and combinations therof are being used for different purposes, to illustrate: 1. Decorative and protection against corrosioncopper, nickel and chromium . 2. Protection against corrosioncadmium or zinc 3. Protection against wearchromium . 4. Build-up of a part or parts undersizechromium or nickel . 5. Pate for rubber adhesionbrass . 6. Protection against carburization and for brazing operationscopper and nickel
Electroslag Refining - A specialised steel making process in which a rolled or a cast ingot in the form of an electrode is remeltec in a water cooled copper mould. The melting is activated by resistive heaat generated in a conductive slag. The resulting product has a similar basic chemical composition to the original ingot, but is characterised by high purity and low inclusion content. Typical applications include high integrity components for the aerospace industry.
Electrostatic Oiler - A device used to apply a thin coating of oil to the strip.
Electrostatic spraying - Application of a coating by applying a static electricity charge to the doplets of a spray and an opposite charge to the part being sprayed, which then attracts the droplets directly to its surface.
Element - Matter which cannot be broken up into simpler substances by chemical action, that is, whose molecules are all composed of only one kind of atom.
Elevated Temperature Drawing - A process of drawing steel bars at elevated temperatures (normally 250-300oC) which under optimum conditions produce steels that have higher tensile and yield strengths than those cold drawn with the same degree of reduction. The process is little used in the united kingdom.
Elongation - Increase in length which occurs before a metal is fractured, when subjected to stress. This is usually expressed as a percentage of the original length and is a measure of the ductility of the metal.
Embossed Aluminum - Flat-rolled aluminum with a surface appearance that has a stucco or grained look.
Embossing - A coating defect consisting of the crawling or dewetting condition where the wet film recedes and forms a raised (in relief) impression.
Embrittlement - "Loss of ductility of a metal due to chemical or physical change. See Acid Embrittlement and Hydrogen Embrittlement "
Emergency Stack Damper - Set of two per boiler. An open damper allows exhaust to vent to the atmosphere rather than to the scrubber.
Emery - A natural abrasive used for grinding or polishing. It is being largely replaced by artificial abrasives.
Emulsion - A coolant formed by mixing soluble oils or compounds with water.
Enamel - Organic material, which is applied in a film to protect or decorate aluminum, tinplate, blackplate or paper.
End-Of Line-Filter - A filter on the end of the auxiliary hydraulic accumulator manifold which allows a small amount of oil to circulate back to the storage tank while cleaning that oil.
End-Quench Hardenability Test - A standardized method for comparing the hardenability of different steels.
Endothermic Reaction - The reaction which occurs with absorption of heat.
Endurance Limit - Maximum alternating stress which a given material will withstand for an infinite number of times without causing fatigue failure. Same as fatigue limit
Engineering Stress (s) - The load divided by the original area.
EPC (Expendable Pattern Casting) - See Lost Foam Process.
Epoxy Amino - Clear thermosetting coating with a combination epoxy resin and amino resin to give adhesion, flexibility and toughness. They offer good chemical and solvent resistance.
Epoxy Phenolic - Physical blends of epoxy and phenolic resins. Gold thermosetting coating with a combination of epoxy resin and amino resin to give adhesion, flexibility and toughness. They offer good chemical and solvent resistance.
Equiaxed Crystals - Crystals,each of which has axes approximately equal in length. These are normally present in centre of a steel ingot.
Equilibrium - A dynamic condition of balance between atomic movements, where the resultant is zero and the condition appears to be one of rest rather than change.
Ergonomics - The science which deals with the interaction between people, their work place and environment. It also considers the physiology of workers in the design of tools, equipment, and the work methods needed.
Erichsen Test - A cupping test in which a piece of sheet metal, restrained except at the center, is deformed by a cone-shaped spherical-end plunger until fracture occurs. The height of the cup in millimeters at fracture is a measure of the ductility.
Erosion - Abrasion of metal or other material by liquid or gas, usually accelerated by pressure of solid particles of matter in suspension, and sometimes by corrosion.
ERW - Electric resistance weld most common form of manufacturing for pipe in sizes from 2 3/8-22 OD
ETCS - See Electrolytic Tin Coated Sheets.
ETP - See Electrolytic Tin Plate.
EUE - External upset ends forging of ends on (API) tubing and pipe to provide additional thickness for strengthening connections
Eutectic - 1) An isothermal reversible reaction in which a liquid solution decomposes, on cooling, into two or more intimately mixed solids. The number of solids formed are the same number of components in the system. 2) An alloy having the chemical composition indicated by the eutectic point on a equilibrium diagram.
Eutectoid - 1) An isothermal reversible reaction in which a solid solution on cooling is converted into two or more intimately mixed solids. The number of solids formed are the same number of components in the system. 2) An alloy having the same chemical composition indicated by the eutectoid point on a equilibrium diagram.
Eutectoid Steel - Steel representing the eutectoid composition of the iron-carbon system, with about 0.80% to 0.83% carbon, the eutectoid temperature being about 1333 (degrees) F. Such steel in the annealed condition consists exclusively of pearlite. Steels with less than this quota of carbon are known as hypo-eutectoid and contain free ferrite in addition to the pearlite. When more carbon is present, the steel is known as hyper-eutectoid and contains free cementite. The presence of certain elements, such as nickel or chromium, lowers the eutedtoid carbon content.
Evaporation Pattern Casting / Expendable Pattern Casting / EPC - See Lost Foam Process.
Excess Base - (E.B.) A chemical analysis that indicates the percent of basic over acid of the sinter.
Exciter - The part of the generator that produces the DC current that is required to make an Electromagnet out of the rotating part (called the rotor) of the generator.
Exhaust Steam - Steam that is exhausted from a turbine. This steam is reduced in pressure and temperature as it exits the turbine and is returned to the plant for heating and various feed water treatment needs. Normal exhaust steam pressure is 2 to 3 psi and the temperature averages 225 degrees Fahrenheit.
Exit End - The delivery end of the line.
Exit Reel - (Delivery Reel or Prime Reel) Reel used to wind the strip after the side trimming process.
Exothermic - Formed by or characterized by heat reaction as in oxidation.
Exothermic Reaction - "Chemical reactions involving the liberation of heat. See Endothermic Reaction. "
Expander Steel - Hardened and tempered, blue polished. Carbon content about 1.00, Chromium .17. Used for the expanders in oil piston rings. Hardness 30 N 70 to 73. Range of sizes run for grooves 3/32 to 1/4 wide with the steel approximately .003 less than the grooves and thickness from .012 to .020.
Expansion Tank - A component of the cooling system that keeps the coolant volume constant.
Extensometer - An apparatus for indicating the deformation of metal while it is subjected to stress.
Extensometer - An instrument used in the testing of metals to measure small increments of deformation.
Extensometer Test - The measurement of deformation during stressing in the elastic range, permitting determination of elastic properties such as properties such as proportional limit, proof stress, yield strength by the offset method and so forth. Requires the use of special testing equipment and testing procedures such as the use of an extensometer or the plotting of a stress-strain diagram.
External Undercut - Any recess or projection on the outside of the die block which prevents its removal from the cavity.
Extra Hard Temper - In brass mill terminology, Extra Hard is six B&S numbers hard or 50.15% reduction from the previous annealing or soft stage.
Extra Spring Temper - In brass mill terminology. Extra Spring is ten numbers hard or 68.55% reduction in thickness from the previous annealing or soft stage.
Extrusion - Shaping metal into a chosen continuous form by forcing it through a die Of an appropriate shape.
Extrusion process - Forcing heated alloy billet through a die by pressure
Eye Bands - Metal bands wrapped through the center or "eye" of the coil to prevent it from uncoiling and to hold strip mults together.
Eyeholing - A coating defect, similar to cratering, but with exposed metal in the void.
EZY OUT - A tool for removing broken bolts or studs from a hole.
Earing - Wavy projections formed at the open end of a cup or shell in the course of deep drawing because of difference in directional properties. Also termed scallop.
Earing - The formation of scallops (ears) around the top edge of a drawn part caused by differences in the directional properties of the sheet metal used.
Edge Strain or Edge Breaks - Creases extending in from the edge of the temper rolled sheet.
Edges - Many types of edges can be produced in the manufacture of flat rolled metal products. Over the years the following types of edges have become recognized as standard in their respective fields. Copper Base Alloys- Slit, Slit and Edge Rolled, Sheared, Sawed, Machined or Drawn . Sheet Steels or Aluminum Sheet- Mill Edge, Slit Edge or Sheared Edge. . Strip Steels and Stainless Strip No. 1 Edge A- Smooth, uniform, round or square edge, either slit or filed or slit and edge rolled as specified, width tolerance +/- .005. No. 2 Edge- A natural sound mill edge carried through from the hot rolled band. Has not been slit, filed, or edge rolled. Tolerances not closer than hot-rolled strip limits. No. 3 Edge - Square, produced by slitting only. Not filed. Width tolerances close. . No. 4 Edge - A round edge produced by edge rolling either from a natural mill edge or from slit edge strip. Not as perfect as No. 1 edge. Width tolerances liberal. No. 5 Edge - An approximately square edge produced by slitting and filing or slitting and rolling to remove burr. . No. 6 Edge - A square edge produced by square edge rolling, generally from square edge hot-rolled occasionally from slit strip. Width tolerances and finish not as exancting as No. 1 edge.
Edging - The dressing of metal strip edges by rolling, filing or drawing.
Elastic Limit - Maximum stress that a material will stand before permanent deformation occurs.
Elastic Limit - The maximum stress to which a material may be subjected without any permanent strain remaining upon complete release of stress.
Elastic Limit - The maximum stress to which a material may be subjected without any permanent strain remaining upon complete release of the stress.
Elastic Strain - Dimensional changes accompanying stress where the original dimensions are restored upon release of the stress.
Electro-Galvanizing - Galvanizing by Electro deposition of zinc on steel.
Electrolytic Tin Plate - Black Plate that has been Tin plated on both sides with commercially pure tin by electrodeposition.
Electroplating - The production of a thin coating of one metal on another by electodeposition. It is very extensively used in industry and is continuing to enlarge its useful functions. Various plated metal and combinations therof are being used for different purposes, to illustrate: 1. Decorative and protection against corrosion..............copper, nickel and chromium . 2. Protection against corrosion.......................................cadmium or zinc . 3. Protection against wear..............................................chromium . 4. Build-up of a part or parts undersize............................chromium or nickel . 5. Pate for rubber adhesion.............................................brass 6. Protection against carburization and for brazing operations....copper and nickel
Electropolishing - Improving the specular reflectivity of a metal surface by electrochemical dissolution.
Elongation - In tensile testing, the increase in the gauge length, measured after fracture of the specimen within the gauge length, usually expressed as a percentage of the original gauge length.
Elongation After Fracture - In tensile testing, the increase in the gauge length measured after fracture of the specimen within the gauge length and usually expressed as a percentage of the original gauge length.
Embossing - Raising or indenting a design in relief on a sheet or strip of metal by passing between rolls of desired pattern.
Endurance Limit - Same as fatigue limit.
Endurance Limit - Maximum alternating stress which a given material will withstand for an infinite number of times without causing fatigue failure.
Epitaxy - Induced orientation of the lattice of a crystal of a surface deposit by the lattice of the substrate crystal.
Eqilibrium Diagram - A graphical representation of the temperature, pressure and composition limits of phase fields in an alloy system as they exist under conditions of thermodynamical equilibrium. In condensed systems, pressure is usually considered constant.
Equiaxed Structure - A structure in which the grains have approximately the same dimensions in all directions.
Erichsen Test - Similar to the Olsen Test. Readings are in millimeters.
Etchant - A chemical solution used to etch a metal to reveal structural details.
Etching - Subjecting the surface of a metal to preferential chemical or electrolytic attack to reveal structural details.
Etching - In metallography, the process of revealing structural details by the preferential attack of reagents on a metal surface.
Eutectoid - (1) An isothermal reversible transformation in which a solid solution is converted into two or more intimately mixed solids, the number of solids formed being the same as the number of components in the system. (2) An alloy having the composition indicated by the eutectoid point on an equilibrium diagram. (3) An alloy structure of intermixed solid constituents formed by a eutectoid transformation.
Exfoliation - A type of corrosion that progresses approximately parallel to the outer surface of the metal, causing layers of the metal to be elevated by the formation of corrosion product.
Extra Hard Temper - In brass mill terminology, Extra Hard is six B&S numbers hard or 50.15% reduction from the previous annealing or soft stage.
Extrusion - Shaping metal into a chosen continuous form by forcing it through a die of appropriate shape.