F. D. fan - Forced Draft Fan.
F.A.O. - An abbreviation of finish all over; it designates that a forging must have sufficient size over the dimensions given on the drawing so that all surfaces may be machined in order to obtain the dimensions shown on the drawing. The amount of additional stock necessary for machining allowance depends on the size and shape of the part and is agreed on by the vendor and the user.
F.O.B. - Prices denote the so-called free-on-board payment, for material that a consumer or agent will give when he picks it up at a dealer's dock. The f.o.b. prices are usually less than delivered-to-works prices for the same items.
Fabricating Ingot - A cast form suitable for subsequent working by such methods as rolling, forging, extruding, etc. (Rolling ingot. Forging ingot. Extrusion Ingot.)
Fabrication - The joining, usually by welding, of two or more parts to produce a finished assembly. The components of the assembly may be a combination of cast and wrought materials.
Fabricator - A producer of intermediate products that does not also produce primary metal. Examples include brass, wire and rod mills which buy copper and other primary or secondary metals to produce brass and other copper alloys or take raw forms of metal and make building,magnet,telecommunications and/or industrial wire,rod and similar products.
Face - To machine a flat surface, as in the end of a shaft in the lathe. The operation is known as facing.
Face Centered (concerning cubic space lattices) - Having equivalent points at the corners of the unit cell and at the centers of its six faces. A face-centered cubic space lattice is characteristic of one of the slose-packed arrangements of equal hard spheres.
Face Milling - Milling a large flat surface with a milling cutter that operates in a plane that is at right angles to its axis.
Face Plate - A large circular plate with slots and holes for mounting the workpiece to be machined. It is attached to the headstock of a lathe.
Facing - The process of making a flat or smooth surface (usually the end) on a piece of stock or material.
Facing Sand - Specially prepared molding sand mixture used in the mold adjacent to the pattern to produce a smooth casting surface.
Fading - A coating defect consisting of the condition in a colored coating where the color, either transparent or opaque, appears to get lighter or bleached out. Heat, light, or chemical exposure usually causes fading.
Far Side - The drive side of the line (farthest away from the pulpit).
Farval System - A lubrication system. See Grease System.
Fastmet - A process to directly reduce iron ore to metallic iron pellets that can be fed into an electric arc furnace with an equal amount of scrap. This process is designed to bypass the coke oven-blast furnace route to produce hot metal from iron ore. It is also one of several methods that mini-mills might use to reduce their dependence on high-quality scrap inputs (see Direct Reduced Iron and Hot Briquetted Iron).
Fatigue - The phenomenon leading to fracture under repeated or fluctuating stresses (having maximum value less than the tensile strength of the material).
Fatigue Crack or Failure - A fracture starting from a nucleus where there is an abnormal concentration of cyclic stress. The fracture surface is smooth and frequently shows concentric (sea shell) markings with a nucleus as a center.
Fatigue Limit (Endurance Limit) - Maximum stress that a material can presumable endure without failure for an infinite number of load cycles.
Fatigue Strength - Maximum stress that a material will endure without failure for a specified number of load cycles.
Fatique Testing - Fatique tests are made with the object of determining the relationship between the stress range and the number of times it can be applied before causing failure. Testing machines are used for applying cyclically varying stresses and cover tension, compression, torsion and bending or a combination of these stresses.
Fe - Chemical symbol for Iron.
Feather Edge - A sharp reduction in gauge on the edge of a band which is caused be grooves worn in rolls due to extensive rolling of the same width material. This is done for coating control on edge. The gauge variations on a feathered edge generally does not extend in from the edge more than one inch.
Feed - The rate of travel of a cutting tool across or into the work, expressed in inches per minute or in inches per revolution.
Feed mechanism - The mechanism,often automatic, which controls the advancing movement (ffed) of the cutting tools used in machines.
Feed Water - Cleaned and softened, chemically treated and steam heated, raw water used for steam generation within the boiler. The temperature of feed water normally is 275-280 B0 F.
Feed Water Pumps - Four pumps (3 in service) used to supply water to the boiler.
Feeder - Also called Riser, it is part of the gating system that forms the reservoir of molten metal necessary to compensate for losses due to shrinkage as the metal solidifies.
Feeder Table - A round table that rotates material onto the #10 and #21 conveyor belts.
Feeding - The process of supplying molten metal to compensate for volume shrinkage while the casting is solidifying.
Feedstock - Any raw material.
Feeler Gauge - 1) Gauge used to gap the slitter knives. The steel being side-trimmed determines the gap between the slitter knives. The gauge slides between the knives measuring the gap between them. 2) A tool used to set the gap of the slitter knives.
Female part - A concave piece of equipment which receives a mating male (convex) part.
Ferralloy - A metal product commonly used as a raw material feed in steelmaking, usually containing iron and otheer metals to aid various stages of the steelmaking process such as deoxidation, desulfurization and adding strength. Examples: ferrochrome,ferromanganese and ferrosilicon.
Ferrand - A device that senses the amount of travel of the A.G.C. cylinders.
Ferrite - A solid solution of one or more elements in the body-center-cubic phase of iron or steel.
Ferrite Banding - Parallel bands of free ferrite aligned in the direction of working. Sometimes referred to a ferrite streaks.
Ferritic - "The second-largest class of stainless steel, constituting approximately 25% of stainless production. Ferritic stainless steels are plain chromium steels with no significant nickel content; the lack of nickel results in lower corrosion resistance than the austenitics (chromium-nickel stainless steels). Ferritics are best suited for general and high-temperature corrosion applications rather than services requiring high strength. They are used in automotive trim and exhaust systems, interior architectural trim, and hot water tanks. Two of the most common grades are type 430 (general-purpose grade for many applications, including decorative ones) and type 409 (low-cost grade well suited to withstanding high temperatures). "
Ferro Alloy - A metal product commonly used as a raw material feed in steelmaking, usually containing iron and other metals, to aid various stages of the steelmaking process such as deoxidation, desulfurization, and adding strength. Examples: ferrochrome, ferromanganese, and ferrosilicon.
Ferro-Manganese - An alloy of iron and manganese (80% manganese) used in making additions of manganese to steel or cast-iron. Ferroalloy, An alloy of iron with a sufficient amount of some element or elements such as manganese, chromium, or vanadium for use as a means in adding these elements into molten steel.
Ferrochrome - An alloy of iron and chromium with up to 72% chromium. Ferrochrome is commonly used as a raw material in the making of stainless steel.
Ferromagnetic - The ability to become highly magnetic and have the ability to retain a permanent magnetic moment. The elementary magnetic dipoles inside the domain are all oriented in a direction parallel to each other.
Ferrous - Metals that consist primarily of iron.
Fettle - British term meaning the process of removing all runners and risers and cleaning off adhering sand from the casting. Also refers to the removal of slag from the inside of the cupola and in Britain to repair the bed of an open hearth.
Fiber - (1) The characteristic of wrought metal that indicates directional properties. It is revealed by etching a longitudinal section or manifested by the fibrous appearance of a fracture. It is caused chiefly by extension of the constituents of the metal, both metallic and nonmetallic, in the direction of working. (2) The pattern of preferred orientation of metal crystal after a given deformation process.
Fibers - Ensures the proper alignment of the strip as it enters the knives in the Sheet Mill.. Fibers are used to hold the strip just above the knife to prevent knife marks on the steel.
File Hardness - Hardness as determined by the use of file of standarized hardness on the assumption that a material which cannot be cut with the file is as hard as,or harder than the file. Files covering a range of hardnesses may be employed.
File Rasp - Tool used to remove zinc or tin buildup from the welder wheels.
File Test - A test for hardness in which a corner of a file is run across the piece of metal being tested. The hardness is shown by the dent the file makes.
Filed Edges - Finished edges, the final contours of which are produced by drawing the strip over a series of small steel files. This is the usual and accepted method of dressing the edges of annealed spring steel strip after slitting in cases where edgewise slitting cracks are objectionable or slitting burr is to be removed.
Filler Metal - A third material that is melted concurrently with the parent metal during fusion or braze welding. It is usually, but not necessarily, of different composition from the parent metals.
Fillet - A concave corner piece used on foundry patterns, a radius joint replacing sharp inside corners.
Filter Canister - The portion of the filter assembly that holds the filter element.
Filter Element - (Filter) A disposable unit that removes solid contamination from the oil.
Filter Housing - (Head)The portion of the filter assembly in which the filter element is seated.
Filter Sludge - A material that is produced when the water from the clarification tanks is filtered for the scrubber system.
Fin - A thin projection on a forging resulting from trimming or from the metal under pressure being forced into hairline cracks in the die or around die inserts
Fin stock - Coiled sheet or foil in specific alloys, tempers, an thickness ranges suitable for manufacture of fins for heat-exchanger applications
Finery - A charcoal-fueled hearth furnace used in early processes for converting cast iron to wrought iron by melting and oxidizing it in an air blast, then repeatedly oxidizing the product in the presence of a slag. The carbon oxidizes more rapidly than the iron so that a wrought iron of low carbon content is produced.
Finish - The surface appearance of steel after final treatment.
Finish Allowance - The amount of stock left on the surface of a casting, forging or mill products for machining.
Finish Mark - A symbol (f, f1, f2, etc.) appearing on the line of a drawing that represents the edge of the surface of the casting to be machined or otherwise finished.
Finish Welding - Production welding carried out in order to ensure the agreed quality of the casting.
Finished Steel - Steel that is ready for the market without further work or treatment. Blooms, billets, slabs, sheet bars, and wire rods are termed semi-finished produced by the in-the-line thermal treatment following electrodeposition.
Finishes - The surface appearance of the various metals after final treatment such as rolling, etc. Over the years the following finishes have become recognized as standard in their respective fields ALUMINUM SHEET (A) Commercially Bright (B) Bright one side (C) Bright both sides BLACK PLATE (A) Dull finish without luster produced by use of roughened rolls. (B) Bright finish a luster finish produced by use of rolls having a moderately smooth surface. COLD ROLLED STEEL SHEETS (A) Commercial finish. A dull satin surface texture produced by roughened rolls (B) Commercial Bright Finish. Bright in appearance with a texture between luster and a very fine matte finish. (C) Luster Finish. Produced by use of ground and polished rolls. (Note: This is not a number 3 finish). COLD ROLLED STRIP STEELS No. 1 Finish A dull finish produced without luster by rolling on roughened rolls. No. 2 Finish A regular bright finish produced by rolling on moderately bright rolls. No. 3 finish Best Bright Finish. A lustrous or high floss finish produced by rolling on highly polished rolls. Also referred to as Mirror Finish. COPPER BASE ALLOYS Acid Dipped Dry rolled finished. Produced by dry cold rolling bi-chromate dipped alloy with polihed rolls, resulting in a burnished appearnace and retaining the color obtained by dipping(True Metal Color). Bright Dipped Finish Finish resulting from an acid dip. Buffed or Polished Surface a finish obtained by buffing, resulting in a high gloss or polished finish. Cold Rolled Finish A relatively smooth finish obtained by cold rolling plain pickled strip with a lubricant. Dry rolled Finish A burnished finish resulting from dry cold rolling by use of polished rolls without any metal lubricant Hot Rolled Finish A dark relatively rough oxidized finish resulting from rolling the metal while hot. May subsequently be pickled or bright dipped but the rough surface remains. Stretched Brushed Finish (Satin finish) - Obtained by mechanically brushing with wire brushes or by buffing. FLAT WIRE No.2 Finish A regular bright finish. No.3 Finish Best Bright High Gloss finish produced by use of poplished rolls. Or by special buffing this is a negotiated finish STAINLESS COLD ROLLED SHEET and STRIP NOS. 1,2B & 2D No.1 finish C.R. Annealed and pickled appearance varies from dull gray matte finish to a fairly reflective surface No.2B Finish Same as No.1 finish followed by a final light cold rolled pass generally on highly polished rolls. No.2D finish A dull cold rolled finish produced by cold rolling on dull rolls. STAINLESS C.R. SHEET Polished Finishes No.3 Finish This is an intermediate polished finish. No.4 Finish Ground and polished finish. No.6 Finish Ground,polished and Tampico Brushed. No.7 Finish Ground and High Luster Polished No.8 Finish Ground and polished to Mirror Finish. TEMPERED and UNTEMPERED COLD ROLLED CARBON SPRING STEEL STRIP Classified by description as follows: (A). Black Oil Tempered (B). Scaless Tempered (C). Bright Tempered (D). Tempered and Polished (E). Tempered, Polished and Colored (Blue or Straw) TIN PLATE(A). Bright Hot Dipped Finish (B). Electro Matte Dull finish (C). Electro Bright Reflow Finish produced by the in-the-line thermal treatment following electrodeposition
Finishing Facilities - The portion of the steelmaking complex that processes semi-finished steel (slabs or billets) into forms that can be used by others. Finishing operations can include rolling mills, pickle lines, tandem mills, annealing facilities, and temper mills.
Finishing Stand - The last stand in a rolling mill, which determines the surface finish and final gauge.
Finite Difference Analysis (FDA) - A computerized numerical modeling approach for solving differential equations. Used primarily in solving heat transfer and solidification problems.
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) - A computerized numerical analysis technique used for solving differential equations to primarily solved mechanical engineering problems relating to stress analysis.
Finmet - The process reduces iron ore fines with gas in a descending series of fluidized bed reactors. The reduced iron is hot briquetted.
Fire Cracks - An irregular pattern of lines on the surface of a sheet caused by rolling with a fire cracked roll. Fire cracks will develop when a roll is not properly cooled.
Firecracker Core - See Pencil Core
Firing Model - the furnace, the ECA, and the Cycle Number. The system determines the furnace type, base type, heat hours, cool hours, uncover temperature, and gas stream.
Fish Eyes - A coating defect consisting of the undissolved particles in the coating usually surrounded by a circular crater. The particles are usually resinous and are raised up from the cured surface with the appearance of the eye of a fish.
Fish mouthing - See lamination.
Fishtail - A common name for the center gage. It is used to set thread cutting tools and has scales on it for determing the numbet of threads per inch.
Fit - The relation between mating or matching parts, that is, the amount of, or lack of, play between then
Fitting - The connection point for two pipes or conduit or the point where grease is inserted into a piece of equipment.
Fixture - A production work-holding device used for machining duplicate workpieces. Although the term is used interchangeably with jig, a fixture is not designed to guide the cutting tools as the jig does.
Flag - A marker inserted adjacent to the edge at a splice or lap in a roll or foil
Flakes - Short discontinuous internal fissures in ferrous metals attributed to stresses produced by lacalized transformation and decreased solubility of hydrogen during cooling after hot working. In a fractured surface, flakes appear as bright silvery areas; on an etched surface thay appear as short discontinuous cracks. Also called shatter cracks and snowflakes.
Flaking - A condition in coated sheet where portions of the coating become loosened due to inadequate adhesion
Flange - See Rib.
Flapper Valve Steel - An extremely flat, very smooth, very accurate to gage, polished, hardened and tempered spring steel produced from approximately 1.15 carbon. The name is derived from its common and principle usage.
Flare Test - A test applied to tubing, involving a tapered expansion over a cone. Similar to pin expansion test.
Flash - A thin section of metal formed at the mold, core, or die joint or parting in a casting due to the cope and drag not matching completely or where core and coreprint do not match.
Flash extension - The amount of metal extending beyond the part at the flash line.
Flash line - A line left on a forging where flash has been removed
Flash Stain - A stain that occurs in the rinse tanks when the line has stopped. It appears blue, green, or black.
Flash Tanks - Where blow down is converted to water for feed water and steam for the plant header.
Flashburn - A defect made by contact rolls when an arc is passed through the strip. Generally on lighter baseweight. (D.R. coils)
Flashing - A coating defect consisting of the uneven, random distribution of a coating on coated substrate. A variation in the color of a coating which is due to variations of the Film weight. A coating defect consisting of the flame weight fluctuation is caused by disproportionate amount of coating transferring from the application roll.
Flask - A metal frame used for making or holding a sand mold. The upper part is the cope and the bottom half is the drag.
Flask Bar - A reinforcing member attached within either half of a flask to assist in holding the rammed sand in position.
Flask Clamp - A device for holding together the cope, drag, and cheek of a flask.
Flask Pin Guides - Guides used to accurately align the match plate pattern in the flask and flask to flask location.
Flat Back - A pattern with a flat surface at the joint of the mold. It lies wholly within the drag and the joint of the cope is a plane surface.
Flat Band - A band with location marks used to position a coil on reel.
Flat Coil - Coil that has collapsed center.
Flat Die Forging(open die forging) - Forging worked between flat or simple contour dies by repeated strokes and manipulation of the workpiece. Also known as hand or smith forging.
Flat Latch Needle Steel - Supplied cold rolled and annealed. Carbon content .85. Supplied both in coil and flat length. Used to make flat latch needles which are used in the manufacture of knitted goods.
Flatness - (1) For rolled products, a distortion of the surface of sheet such as a bulge or a wave, usually transverse to the direction of rolling. Often described by location across width, i.e., edge buckle, quarter buckle, center buckle, etc. (2) For extrusions, flatness (off contour) pertains to the deviation of a cross-section surface intended to be flat. Flatness can be affected by conditions such as die performance, thermal effects and stretching
Flat Rolled Steel - Steel produced on rolling mills utilizing relatively smooth, cylindrical rolls. The width to thickness ratio of flat rolled products is usually fairly large. Examples of flat rolled steel are hot-rolled, cold-rolled, and coated sheets and coils, tin mill products, etc.
Flat Wire - A flat Cold Rolled, prepared edge section up to 1 1/4 wide, rectangular in shape. Generally produced from hot rolled rods or specially prepared round wire by one or more cold rolling operations, primarily for the purpose of obtaining the size and section desired. May also be produced by slitting cold rolled flat metal to desired with followed by edge dressing.
Flat-rolled steel - Steel processed on rolls with flat faces as opposed to grooved or cut faces. Flat-rolled products include sheet, strip and tin plate, among others.
Flatness - The absence of any gap or clearance when a strip is placed, without applying any pressure, between two parallel-faced plates. Wherever a gap exists under this condition, the strip is "unflat". There are two kinds of "unflatness"--thickness non-uniformity (such as frown, profile, etc.) and geometric non-uniformity called shape defects such as (wavy strip, bent strip, coil set, center buckle, etc.).
FLD - Full length drift ( as opposed to end drift) usually performed as part of used tubing or casing (OCTG) inspection
Flocculation - A coating defect consisting of the formation of clusters of particles separable by relatively weak mechanical forces, or by a change in the physical forces at the interface between the liquid and the dispersed particles.
Floor Plate - Usually carbon (but also alloy and stainless) steel plate rolled with raised lug patterns to provide traction for feet and wheels; as the name suggests, used widely for flooring.
Flow Control Valve - A valve that is adjusted to allow oil to move through it at a predetermined rate.
Flow Lines - (1) Texture showing the direction of metal flow during hot or cold working. Flow lines often can be revealed by etching the surface or a section of a metal part. (2) In mechanical metallurgy, paths followed by volume elements of metal during deformation.
Flow Marks A coating - A coating defect consisting of the poor flow out of the coating on the substrate causing a ribbed (ribbing) or ridged appearance.
Flow Meter - A device that will show mechanically and or electronically the amount of oil moving through it.
Flow-Off (Pop-Off) - A large vent, usually located at the high of the mold cavity. In addition to letting air and mold gases escape as metal fills the mold cavity, the flow-off fills with metal and acts to relieve the surge of pressure near the end of the pouring.
Flow through - A forging defect caused when metal flows past the base of a rib resulting in rupture of the grain structure.
Fluidity - The ability of molten metal to flow. Common devices used to measure fluidity are: spiral casting and the Chinese Puzzle.
Fluidize - To impart fluid like properties to powders or sands e.g. fluidized beds.
Flush Joint - Connection with male and female threads cut directly in pipe (as opposed to T&C). This provides the same ID clearance as in the middle of the tube, once lengths and joined.
Flute - The groove in a cutting tool which provides a cutting edge and a space for the chips to escape and pernits the cutting fluids to reach the cutting edges.
Fluting - 1) Visible line markings that sometimes appear on the surface of flat rolled products during forming; associated with non-uniform yielding of the metal; occurs when the steel is formed into cylindrical or arc shaped parts. 2) The kinking, or breaking of a sheet generally caused by curing the sheet on two small a diameter. Fluting, or paneling as it is often called, can be avoided by working the steel before bending. Steel with a definite yield point (a visible break in the stress-strain curve) will generally tend to flute.
Flux - An iron cleaning agent. Limestone and lime react with impurities within the metallic pool to form a slag that floats to the top of the relatively heavier (and now more pure) liquid iron.
Fly Cutter - A single-point cutter mounted on a bar in a fly cutter holder or a fly cutter arbor. Used for special applications for which a milling cutter is not available.
Flying Shear - A shear which severs steel as the piece continues to move. In continuous mills, the piece being rolled cannot be stopped for the shearing operation, so the shear knives must move with it until it is severed.
Foil - A rolled product rectangular in cross section of thickness less than 0.006 inch. In Europe, foil is equal to and less than 0.20 mm
Foil, Annealed - Foil completely softened by thermal treatment
Foil, Bright Two Sides - Foil having a uniform bright specular finish on both sides
Foil, Chemically Cleaned - Foil chemically washed to remove lubricant and foreign material
Foil, Embossed - Foil on which a pattern has been impressed by means of an engraved roll or plate
Foil, Etched - Foil roughened chemically or electrochemically to provide an increase surface area
Foil, Hard - Foil fully work-hardened by rolling
Foil. Intermediate Temper - Foil intermediate in temper between Annealed Foil and Hard Foil
Foil, matte One Side (MIS) - Foil with a diffuse reflecting finish on one side and a bright specular finish on the other
Foil, Mechanically Grained - Foil mechanically roughened for such applications as lithography
Foil, Mill Finish (MF) - Foil having a non-uniform finish which may vary form soil to coil and within a coil
Foil, Scratch Brushed - Foil abraded, usually with wire brushes, to produce a roughened surface
Fold - A forging discontinuity caused by metal folding back on its own surface during flow in the die cavity
Forging, Die a forging formed to the required shape and size by working in impression dies -
Follower Rest - A support for long,slender work turned in the lathe. It is mounted on the carriage,travels close to and with the cutting tool and keeps the work from springing away.
Footage of Coil - The length of the steel strip that makes up a coil.
Footstock - Part of an indexing attachment which has a center and serves the same purpose as the tail stock of a lathe.
Force Fit - A fitting which one part is forced pressed into another to form a single unit. There are different classes of force fits depending on standard limits between mating parts.
Forced Draft Fan - Fan that provides ambient air to the boiler to facilitate proper combustion.
Forge - To form or shape heated metal by hammering. Also, the name of the unit used for heating metal, such as the blacksmiths forge.
Forgeability - The term used to describe the relative workability of forging material
Forging - Plastically deforming metal, usually hot, into desired shapes with
Forging - The production of semi-finished forms from wrought metal blanks hot or cold in closed dies by a sudden, sharp impact. See Hammer Forging nand Hot Press Forging.
Forging Billet - The term Forging Stock is preferred
Forging Ingot - A cast form intended and suitable for subsequent working by the forging process
Forging Plane - A reference plane or planes normal to the direction of applied force from which all draft angles are measured
Forging Quality - Term describing stock of sufficiently superior quality to make it suitable for commercially satisfactory forgings.
Forging Stock - A wrought or cast rod, bar or other section suitable for forging
Forging, Blocker-Type - A forging made in a single set of impressions to the general contour of a finished part
Forging, Cold-coined - A forging that has been restruck cold in order to obtain closer dimensions, to sharpen corners or outlines and in non-heat-treatable alloys, to increase hardness
Forging, Die a forging formed to the required shape and size by working in impression dies - NULL
Forging, Draftless - A forging with zero draft on vertical walls
Forging, Flashless - A closed die forging made in dies constructed and operated to eliminate, in predetermined area, the formation of flash
Forging, Hammer - A forging produced by repeated blows in a forging hammer
Forging, Hand - A forging worked between flat or simply shaped dies by reapeated strokes or blows and manipulation of the piece.
Forging, No-Draft - See forging, Draftless.
Forging, Precision - A forging produced to tolerances closer than standard
Forging, Press - A die forging produced to tolerance closer to standard
Forging, Rolled Ring - A cylindrical product of relatively short height, circumferentially rolled from a hollow section
Forging, Upset - A forging having part or all of its cross section greater than that of the stock
Forging - A metal part worked to predetermined shape by one or more processes such as hammering, upsetting, pressing, rolling, etc.
Formability - The relative ease with which a metal can be shaped through plastic deformation.
Formed Cutters - Milling cutters which will produce shaped surfaces with a single cut and so designed that they may be sharpened without changing their outline or shape.
Forming Tool - Tool ground to a desired shape to reproduce this shape on the workpiece.
Foundry Returns - Metal (of unknown compostion) in the form of gates, sprues,rummers,risers and scraped castings returned to the furnace or re-melting.
Fractography - Descriptive treatment of fracture,especially in metal,with specific reference to photography of the fracture surface.
Fracture - Fractures are often described by the appearance of the surface of the break in a piece of steel. Crystalline is bright and glittering, failure having developed along the cleavage planes of individual crystals and can be typical of brittle material. A silky fracture has a smooth dull grain indicative of ductile material such as mild steel. In tensile testing fractures are described by shape, e.g.cup and cone.
Fracture Toughness - A generic term for measure of resistance to extension of a crack. The term is sometimes restricted to results of a fracture mechanics test, which is directly applicable to fracture control.
Free machining - Pertains to the machining characteristics of an alloy to which one or nmore ingredients have been inrroduced to produce small broken chips, lower poweer consumption, betteer surface finish, and longer tool life; among such additions are sulfur or lead to steel, lead to brass, lead and bismuth to aluminum, and sulfur or selenium to stainless steel.
Free Cut - An additional cut with no advancement of depth.
Freecutting Steels - Steels which have had additions made to improve machinability. The most common additives are sulphur and lead, other elements used include tellurium, selenium and bismuth.
Free fit - A class of fit intended for use where accuracy is not essential or where large temperature variations are likely to be encountered or both conditions.
Fretting - See Mark, Traffic
Friction Scratch - See Scratch, Friction
Foundry Returns - Metal in the form of sprues, gates, runners, risers and scrapped castings, with known chemical composition that are returned to the furnace for remelting. Sometimes referred to as " revert ".
Fragmentation - The subdivision of a grain into small discrete crystallites outlined by a heavily deformed network of intersecting slip bands as a result of cold working. These small crystals or fragments differ from one another in orientation and tend to rotate to a stable orientation detemined by the slip systems.
Free Loop Pit - Area below floor level (delivery end No. 5 Pickler; where free-running strip ensures synchronization between the tank section and the delivery end. If the delivery end runs too fast, the coil strip is pulled out of the pit and the line shuts down.
Frequency Relay - A device that monitors the frequency of the electricity in a given area of the plant. Should the frequency drop off from 60 Hz, the frequency relay is designed to trip at its designated frequency and open various circuit breakers. Frequency relays in the plant are set up to operate from 59 Hz down to 58 Hz.
Friction Gouges or Scratches - A series of relatively short surface scratches variable in form and severity. Refer to Galling.
Frictional Wear - The displacement and/or detachment of metallic particles from a surface as a consequence of being in contact with another moving component.
Front End - The inside lap of the produced coil, or the outside lap of the consumed coil.
Froude Number - Used in hydraulics as an analog to the Reynolds number. It is the ratio of inertial forces to gravitational forces.
Fuel Air - A controller for fuel air dampers on boilers. To maintain proper combustion on oil fire.
Fuel Flow - The measured flow of the various fuels supplied to the boilers.
Fulcrum - The point or support on which a lever turns.
Full Annealing (ferrous materials) - An annealing treatment in which a steel is ausenitized by heating to a temperature above the upper critical temperature (A3 or Acm) and then cooled slowly to room temperature. A typical cooling rate would be 210F/h 100 C/h. Compare normalizing. Use of the term annealing without qualification implies full annealing.
Full Center - See Buckle, Center
Full Hard - Cold rolled coils coming from the Strip Steel that have not been annealed.
Full Hard Cold Rolled - Hot rolled pickled steel that is cold reduced to a specified thickness and subject to no further processing (not annealed or temper rolled). The product is very stiff; it is intended for flat work where deformation is very minimal.
Full Hard Temper - (A) (No. 1 Temper) In low carbon sheet or strip steel, stiff and springy, not suitable for bending in any direction. It is the hardest temper obtainable by hard cold rolling. (B) In Stainless Steel Strip, tempers are based on minimum tensile or yield strength. For Chromium-Nickel grades Full Hard temper is 185,000 TS, 140,000 YS Min. Term also used in connection with copper base alloys and considered synonymous with Hard Temper.
Full Hard Temper - Full Hard Cold Rolled steel produced to a Rockwell hardness of 84 and higher on the B scale.
Fuller (fullering impression) - Portion of the die that is used in hammer forging primarily to reduce the cross section and lengthen a portion of the forging stock. The fullering impression is often used in conjunction with an edger (or edging impression).
Furnace - The cylindrical or rectangular heating device placed on the base after the base has been loaded and the coils have been covered.
Furnace Pressure - Positive or negative atmospheric pressure inside the furnace, measured in water columns.
Futures contract - Legally binding agreement to buy or sell a commodity.
Fatigue - The phenomenon leading to fracture under repeated or fluctuating stresses having a maximum value less than the tensile strength of the material. Fatigue fractures are progressive, beginning as minute cracks that grow under the action of the fluctuating stress.
Fatigue - The phenomenon leading to fracture under repeated or fluctuating stress. Fatigue fractures are progressive beginning as minute cracks and grow under the action of fluctuating stress.
Fatigue - The phenomenon leading to fracture under repeatef or fluctuating stresses (having maximum value less than the tensile strength of the material).
Fatigue Life - The number of cycles of stress that can be sustained prior to failure for a stated test condition.
Fatigue Limit - The maximum stress below which a materiel can presumable endure an infinite number of stress cycles. If the stress is not completely reversed, the value of the mean stress, the minimum stress or the stress ratio should be stated.
Fatigue Strength - The maximum stress that can be sustained for a specified number of cycles without failure, the stress being completely reversed within each cycle unless otherwise stated.
Ferrite - A solid solution of one or more elements in body-centered cubic iron. Unless otherwise designated (for instance, as chromium ferrite), the solute is generally assumed to be carbon. On some equilibrium diagrams ther are two ferrite regions separated by an austenite area. The lower area is alpha ferrite; the upper, delta ferrite. If there is no designation, alpha ferrite is assumed.
Ferrite - Generally, a solid solution of one or more alloying elements in the bcc polymorph of iron ( -Fe). Specifically, in carbon steels, the interstitial solid solution of carbon in -Fe.
Ferrite-pearlite Banding - Inhomogeneous distribution of ferrite and pearlite aligned in filaments or plates parallel to the direction of working.
Ferritic Grain Size - The grain size of the ferric matrix of a steel.
Ferro-Manganese - An alloy of iron and manganese (80% manganese) used in making additions of manganese to steel or cast-iron. Ferroalloy, An alloy of iron with a sufficient amount of some element or elements such as manganese, chromium, or vanadium for use as a means in adding these elements into molten steel.
Ferrous - Related to iron (derived from the Latin ferrum). Ferrous alloys are, therfore, iron base alloys.
Fiber or Fibre - Direction in which metals have been caused to flow, as by rolling, with microscopic evidence in the form of fibrous appearance in the direction of flow.
Fiber Stress - Unit stress which exists at any given point in a structural element subjected to load; given as load per unit area.
Fiber Stress - Local stress through a small area (a point or line) on a section where the stress is not uniform, as in a beam under a bending load.
Fibrous Fracture - A fracture whose surface is characterized by a dull gray or silky appearance.
Finishing Temperature - The temperature at which hot working is completed.
Finishing Temperature - Temperature of final hot-working of a metal.
Fish eyes - Areas on a fractured steel surface having a characteristic white crystalline appearance.
Flame Annealing - Annealing in which the heat is applied directly by a flame.
Flame Annealing - A process of softening a metal by the application of heat from a high-temperature flame.
Flame Hardening - A process of hardening a ferrous alloy by heating it above the transformation range by means of a high-temperature flame, and then cooling as required.
Flame Hardening - Quench hardening in which the heat is applied directly by a flame.
Flash - (1) In forging, the excess metal forced between the upper and lower dies. (2) In resistance butt welding, a fin formed perpendicular to the direction of applied pressure.
Flash - (1) In forging, the excess metal forced between the upper and lower dies. (2) In die casting, the fin of metal which results form leakage between the mating die surfaces. (3) In resistance butt welding, a fin formed perpendicular to the direction of applied pressure.
Flash Welding - A resistance butt welding process in which the weld is produced over the entire abutting surface by pressure and heat, the heat being produced by electric arcs between the members being welded.
Flow Stress - The shear stress required to cause plastic deformation of solid metals.
Flow Stress - The uniaxial true stress required to cause plastic deformation at a specified value of strain.
Flowlines - Always visible to a greater or less degree when a longitudinal section has been subjected to Macro etching, indicating the direction of working or rolling.
Fluting - Kinking or breakage due to curving of metal strip on a radius so small, with relation to thickness, as to stretch the outer surface above its elastic limit. Not to be confused with the specific product, Fluted Tubes.
Flux - (1) In refining, a material used to remove undesirable substances as a molten mixture. It may also be used as a protective covering for molten metal. (2) In welding, a material used to prevent the formation of, or to dissolve and facilitate the removal of, oxides and other undesirable substances.
Foil - Metal in sheet form less than 0.006 in. in thickness.
Foil - Metal in any width but no more than about 0.005 thick.
Folds - Defects caused in metal by continued fabrication of overlapping surfaces.
Forge Welding - Welding hot metal by applying pressure or blows.
Forging - Plastically deforming metal, usually hot, into desired shapes with compressive force, with or without dies.
Fractography - Descriptive treatment of fracture, especially in metals, with specific reference to photographs of the fracture surface. Macrofractography involves photographs at low magnification; microfractography, at high magnification.
Fracture - Surface appearance of metals when broken.
Fracture Test - Nicking and breaking a bar by means of sudden impact, to enable macroscopic study of the fractured surface.
Fracture Test - Breaking a specimen and examining the fractured surface with the unaided eye or with a low-power microscope to determine such things as composition, grain size, case depth, soundness, and presence of defects.
Free Machining - Pertains to the machining characteristics of an alloy to which one or more ingredients have been introduced to produce small broken chips, low power consumption, better surface finish or longer tool life.
Free Machining - Pertains to the machining characteristics of an alloy to which an ingredient has been introduced to give small broken chips, lower power consumption, better surface finish, and longer tool life; among such additions are sulfur or lead to steel, lead to brass, lead and bismuth to aluminum, and sulfur or selenium to stainless steel.
Fretting (Fretting Corrosion) - Action that results in surface damage, especially in a corrosive environment, when there is relative motion between solid surfaces in contact under pressure.
Full Annealing - Annealing a ferrous alloy by austenitizing and then cooling slowly through the transformation range. The austenitizing temperature to hypoeutectoid steel is usually above Ac3; and for hypereutectoid steel, usually between Ac1 and Ac (cm).
Full Annealing - Used principally on iron and steel, means heating the metal to about 100 (degrees) F. above the critical temperature range, followed by soaking at this point and slow cooling below the critical temperature.
Full Finish Plate - Steel sheet or strip, reduced either hot or cold, cleaned, annealed, and then cold-rolled to a bright finish.
Fusion Welding - Any welding process in which fusion is employed to complete the weld.