H - Chemical symbol for hydrogen.
Hacksaw - A metal blade of hardened steel having small, close teeth on one edge. It is held under tension in a U-shaped frame.
Hadfield Manganese Steel - A specially steel which is austenitic and usually contains approximately 12% Manganese. It is used in mining, earth- moving equipment and in railroad track work.
Hair, Slitter - Minute hair-like sliver along edge(s)due to shearing or slitting operation
Half-Hard Temper - Cold Rolled steel produced to a Rockwell hardness range of 70 to 85 on the B scale. Product of this temper is intended for limited cold forming and will only withstand 90-degree bends made across the rolling direction.
Half Nut - A lever-operated mechanism that resembles a split nut that can be closed on the lead screw of a lathe when threads are being.
Halogen Method - The plating solution basis at WSC; other methods include ferrostan and MSA (methyl sulfonic acid).
Hammer Forging - A forging that is made on the flat die of a steam hammer. A forged piece produced in a forging hammer, or the process of forming such a piece.
Hammer Forging - Forging in which the work is deformed by repeated blows. Compare with press forging.
Hand Forge (smith forge) - The forging operation in which the forming is accomplished on dies that are generally flat. The piece is shaped roughly to the required contour with little or no lateral confinement; operations involving mandrels are included.
Hand Forging - A forging made by hand on an anvil or under a power hammer without dies containing an exact finishing impression of the part. Such forgings approximate each other in size and shape but do not have the commercial Exactness of production die forgings required does not warrant expenditure for special die, or where the size of shape of the piece is such as to require means other than die forging. A forging worked between flat or simply shaped dies by repeated strokes and manipulation of the piece. Also know as smith forging or flat die forging.
Hand Hole Caps - Removable header access plug, which can be used to gain access to the headers.
Hand Hook - A tool made of steel rod used to push crane spreader arms apart or pull together.
Hand Shears - Tool used in cutting steel plate.
Hand Welder - Portable welder used to weld the strip together at any place throughout the line.
Handwheel - Any adjusting or feeding mechanism shaped like a wheel and operated by hand.
Handling Mark - See Mark, Handling
Hard Chromium - Chromium deposited for engineering purposes, such as increasing the wear resistance of sliding metal surfaces, rather than as a decorative coating. It is usually applied directly to basis metal and is customarily thicker than a decorative deposit.
Hard Drawn Spring Steel Wire - A medium high carbon cold drawn spring steel wire. Used principally for cold wound springs.
Hard Metal Facing - A method of increasing the wear resistance of a metal by the deposition of a hard protective coating. Alloys such as Stellite or a metallic carbide are most often used for the coating.
Hard Metals - A group of materials more commonly known as cemented carbides. They consist of mixtures of one or more of the finely divided carbides of tungsten, titanium, tantalum and vanadium embedded in a matrix of cobalt or nickel by sintering. Widely used for cutting tools where for many applications they have replaced conventional high speed steels
Hardener - An alloy containing at least some aluminum and one or more added elements for use in making alloying additions to molten aluminum. Also referred to as Master Alloy.
Hardening - Increasing hardness by suitable treatment, usually involving heating and cooling. When applicable, the following more specific terms should be used: age hardening, case hardening, flame hardening, induction hardening, precipitation hardening, quench hardening.
Hardness - Resistance to plastic deformation, usually by indentation. The term may also refer to stiffness or temper, or to resistance to scratching, abrasion or cutting. Brinell Hardness: Brinell hardness of aluminum alloys is obtained by measuring the permanent impression in the material made by a ball indenter 10 millimeters in diameter after loading with 500 kilogram-force for 15 seconds and dividing the applied load by the area of the impression. Rockwell Hardness: An indentation hardness test based on the depth of penetration of a specified penetrator into the specimen under certain arbitrarily fixed conditions.
Hardness Value - Degree to which a material resists deformation, indentation or scratching. There are many numerical scales (and thus methods) to measure the hardness value (example Brinell, Rockwell, Vickers, etc.)
Harmonic Distortion - Condition associated with the critical speed of the shaft in a turbine.
Head Metal - The reservoir of metal in the feeder or riser of a mold.
Headstock - The fixed or stationary end of a lathe or similar machine tool.
Header - 1) A pipe that carries plater solution from the plater pumps to the cells. 2) The primary or first source of any given boiler system or section.
Heat (forging) - A combination of heating, holding and cooling operations applied to a metal or alloy in the solid state to produce desired properties.
Heat - The total amount of metal produced which can be represented by one analysis sample and one set of mechanical tests.
Heat Check - Fine cracks in the forging dies caused by excessive heat or extended use without polishing. The pattern of these heat checks is reproduced on the forged part.
Heat Cover - A cylindrical or rectangular inner cover placed over the coils prior to placing the furnace on the base in the Batch Anneal.
Heat Exchanger - Removes heat from oil with water, which comes from #5 cell.
Heat Number - In the Batch Anneal, this is the computerized annealing sequence number used by the Firing Model to associate target values to the Heat Sequence. It is required to run the Firing Model. In the BOP a sequential number assigned to each batch of steel.
Heat Treat Stain - A discoloration due to non-uniform oxidation of the metal surface during solution heat treatment
Heat-Treatable Alloy - An alloy which may be strengthed by a suitable thermal treatment
Heat Treatment - Heating and cooling a solid metal or alloy in such a way that desired structures, conditions or properties are attained. Heating for the sole purpose of hot working is excluded from the meaning of this term.
Heat-resistant alloy - An alloy developed for very-high-temperature service where relatively hight stresses (tensile,thermal,vibratory or shock) are encountered and where oxidation resistance is frequently required.
Heater - A device used to maintain oil tank temperature.
Heavy Coating - A condition caused by too much coating being applied to the strip.
Heavy Gauge - Product with a thickness above the customer's maximum gauge tolerance.
Heavy Structural Shapes - A general term given to rolled flanged sections that have at least one dimension of their cross sections three inches or greater. The category includes beams, channels, tees and zees if the depth dimension is three inches or greater, and angles if the length of the leg is three inches or greater.
Heavy/Light gauge - Steel plate not meeting customer gauge specifications.
Hedging - Taking an opposite position in the commodity futures market to your position in the physical market.
Helical Gear - A gear with teeth cut at some angle other than at a right angle across the face of the geaaaar, thus permitting more than one tooth to be engaged at all times and providing a smoother and quieter operation than the spur gear.
Helix - A path formed as a point advances uniformly around a cylinder as the thread on a screw or the flutes on a drill.
Helix Angle - The angle between the direction of the threads around a screw and a line running at a right angle to the shank.
Herringbone - See Streak, Herringbone
Hertz - Term used to describe the frequency in an AC circuit. Essentially the same as cycles. If a circuit is 60 Hz or 60 cycles, that means that the AC wave has gone through 60 complete waves in one second.
Hex - A term used for anything shaped like a hexagon.
Hi-Speed Test - Test conducted on a coil coming to the side trimmers from another operating unit. The test is conducted at the request of another unit. A test cut is made, a gauge chart produced, and an inspection is made by Process Control.
Hickey - A coating defect consisting of a randomly oriented small speckled appearance on coated plate after inks are applied.
High Brass - 65% A copper-zinc alloy containing 35% zinc. Possesses high tensile strength. Used for springs, screws, rivets, etc.
High-Carbon Steel - Steel with more than 0.3% carbon. The carbon that is dissolved in the iron, the less formable and the tougher the steel becomes. High-carbon steels hardness makes it suitable for plow blades, shovels, bedsprings, cutting edges, or other high-wear applications.
High Pressure Mold - A strong high-density mold, made by air, hydraulic, or other squeeze process.
High Pressure Steam - Steam that is delivered from the boilers to drive the turbo generators and turbo blowers. High pressure steam is produced at 800 psi and 825 degrees Fahrenheit.
High Rockwell - A condition that occurs when the hardness of the steel is above the maximum limit as specified by the customer.
High Speed Steel - The term high speed steel was derived from the fact that it is capable of cutting meta at a much hight rate than carbon tool steel and continues to cut and retain its hardness even when the point of the tool is heated to a low red temperature. Ungsten is the major alloying element but it is also combined with molybdenum, vanadium and cobalt in varying amounts. Although replaced by cemented carbides for many applications it is still widely used for the manufacture of taps, dies, twist drills, reamers, saw blades and other cutting tools.
High Strength Low Alloy - (HSLA) A specific group of steel in which higher strength, and in some cases additional resistance to atmospheric corrosion or improved formability, are obtained by moderate amounts of one or more alloying elements such as columbium, vanadium, titanium, used alone or in combination.
High Stress Grinding Abrasion - Abrasion that occurs when the abrasive is crushed between two opposing surfaces.
High-Alloy Steel - Ferrous alloy with more than 12 weight percent of noncarbon additions.
High-Carbon Steel - Steel with more than 0.3% carbon. The more carbon that is dissolved in the iron, the less formable and the tougher the steel becomes. High-carbon steel's hardness makes it suitable for plow blades, shovels, bedsprings, cutting edges, or other high-wear applications. See Low-Carbon Steel and Medium-Carbon Steel.
Hindered Contraction - Casting contraction during solidification and cooling which is hindered by mold or core restraints.
Hob - A cylindrical cutting tool shaped like a worm thread and used in industry to cut gears.
Hobbing - The operation of cutting gears with a hob.
Hoist - Device that raises and lowers coils to and from reels.
Hold - Coil type indicating that a produced coil or lift has problems that need to be resolved by the Quality Assurance department.
Hold Coil - A processed coil that does not meet customer specifications that needs to be held for disposition.
Hold Down Rolls - Two small rolls used for holding force on the top of the strip as it runs through slitter knives.
Hold Ticket - A ticket used to quarantine out-of-spec material.
Hole - Void in rolled product. Typical cause is a non-metallic inclusion during rolling
Hole Punch - A piece of equipment used to put small holes in the strip where welds are make. Use of the hole punch is specified by all customers. Used for weld detection.
Hole Saw - A cutting tool used to cut a circular groove into solid material.
Holiday - Region where film is absent due to non-wetting of the metal surface by the coating
Hollow Drill Test (Trepanning) - Removing a cylindrical sample from a metal section or structure to determine soundness of the section.
Hollow Structural Sections - Known in the market as HSS, this is high-strength, cold formed, electric-welded structural tubing welded steel tubing used as structural elements in a broad range of construction and architectural applications, structural components for vehicles and industrial machinery, buildings and other structures, and a variety of manufactured products. It is produced in round, square and rectangular shapes and a broad range of sizes. Structural tubings basic advantages lie in its high strength-to-weight ratio, attractive appearance and cost-effectiveness.
Homogenizing - Is a process whereby ingots are raised to temperatures near the solidus temperature and held at that temperature for varying lengths of time. The purposes of this process are to (1) reduce microsegregation by promoting diffusion of solute atoms within the grains of aluminum and (2) improve workability
Hook - An abrupt deviation from straightness. Hook can be caused by non-uniform metal flow during breakthrough. See also Bow
Hooke's Law - Stress is proportional to strain in the elastic range. The value of the stress at which a material ceases to obey Hooke's law is known as the elastic limit.
Horizontal Axis Casting Machine - A centrifugal casting machine in which the axis of rotation of the mold is horizontal.
Hot Band (Hot-Rolled Steel) - A coil of steel rolled on a hot-strip mill (hot-rolled steel). It can be sold in this form to customers or further processed into other finished products.
Hot Bands - See Hot Rolled Sheets.
Hot Box Process - A furan resin-based process similar to shell coremaking; cores produced with it are solid unless mandrelled out.
Hot Briquetted Iron (HBI) - Direct reduced iron that has been processed into briquettes. Instead of using a blast furnace, the oxygen is removed from the ore using natural gas and results in a substance that is 90%-92% iron. Because DRI may spontaneously combust during transportation, HBI is preferred when the metallic material must be stored or moved.
Hot End - The section of a steelmaking complex from the furnace up to, but not including, the hot-strip mill.
Hot Metal - The name for the molten iron produced in a blast furnace. It proceeds to the basic oxygen furnace in molten form or is cast as pig iron.
Hot Mill - The rolling mill that reduces a hot slab into a coil of specified thickness; the whole processing is done at a relatively high temperature (when the steel is still "red").
Hot Press Forging - A method of forming parts by pressing a heated slug, cut from wrought material, in closed-impression die.
Hot Quenching - Cooling in a medium, the temperature of which is substantially higher than room temperature.
Hot Roll - Product that is sold in its "as produced state" off the Hot Mill with no further reduction or processing steps aside from being pickled and oiled (if specified).
Hot Roll Base - Hot rolled coils which have been pickled in an acid solution to remove surface oxidation, then is oiled to prevent rust. Coils that come directly off of No. 5 Pickler and were not cold roll reduced on the tandem mill. These coils will usually have a 20" ID. (Outside-supplied hot roll base may have a 24" ID.
Hot Roll, P&O - Hot Roll Pickle and Oil that does not go to a in-house Tandem Mill. It may not necessarily be shipped out; it could go to the No. 8 Temper Mill.
Hot Rolled Sheets - Manufactured by hot rolling slabs to the required thickness.
Hot Rolled Steel (HR) - Rolling steel slabs into flat-rolled steel after it has been reheated.
Hot Rolling Mill - See Hot Mill.
Hot Screens - A device used to remove hot fines that are less than one-fourth millimeter in diameter from the sinter before it goes to the cooler.
Hot Spot - Dark gray or black surface patches appearing after anodizing. These areas are usually associated with lower hardness and coarse magnesium silicide precipitate Caused by non-uniform cooling after extrusion.
Hot Stand-By - Describes the status of a boiler that is not in use and not down for repairs, but that is on 225 warm-up steam and maintaining 200 psi of steam pressure with oil fire.
Hot Strength (Sand) - Tenacity (compressive, shear or transverse) of a sand mixture determined at any temperature above room temperature.
Hot Strip Mill - A mill that rolls reheated slabs into coils. Also, Hot Mill.
Hot Tear - A crack or fracture formed prior to completion of metal solidification as a result of hindered contraction. A hot tear is frequently open to the surface of the casting and is commonly associated with design limitations.
Hot Work - The rolling, forging or extruding of a metal at a temperature above its recrystallisation point.
Hot Working - Plastic deformation of metal at a temperature sufficiently high not to create strain hardening. The lower limit of temperature for this process is the recrystallization temperature.
Hot-dip coating - A meatllic coating obtained by dipping the substrate into molten metal.
Hot-rolling - (HR) Rolling steel slabs into flat-rolled steel after it has been reheated.
Hot-Strip Mill - A rolling mill of several stands of rolls that converts slabs into hot-rolled coils. The hot-strip mill squeezes slabs, which can range in thickness from 2-10 inches, depending on the type of continuous caster, between horizontal rolls with a progressively smaller space between them(while vertical rolls govern the width) to produce a coil of flat-rolled steel about a quarter-inch in thickness and a quarter mile in length.
Housing - The inner side of the #1 and #2 feeders.
Housing Unit - Steel device used to hold the billy roll in place between the slitter heads and knives.
HR - Hot-rolling Rolling steel slabs into flat-rolled steel after it has been reheated.
HSLA - High Strength Low Alloy Steel. Steel with relatively high strength and impact properties. The carbon level is low and the alloying additions are significantly less than 5 weight percent.
Hub - A boss that is in the center of the forging and forms a part of the body of the forging.
Hydraulic Manifold - A component of a hydraulic system that functions as a delivery point for the hydraulic pressures needed to run the different cylinders in that system. Both the A. G. C. and the C.V.C. systems use manifolds.
Hydraulic Oil - The oil that is pumped under pressure to supply force to the different cylinders.
Hydraulic Stack - A component of the auxiliary hydraulic system that controls oil flow to an individual function of the system.
Hydraulic Stand - A component of the auxiliary hydraulic system that is made up of many hydraulic stacks.
Hydroforming - A forming process in which a tube is placed into a forming die. The tube is then formed to the shape of the die through the application of internal water pressure. The hydroforming process allows for severe shape deformation, making it ideal for automotive structural parts such as engine cradles, radiator supports and body rails. Various shaped and sized holes can be punched in the tube almost anywhere during the process.
Hydrogen - An undesirable impurity if present in steel and a cause of fine hairline cracks especially in alloy steels. Modern vacuum treatment consists of pearlite and cementite.
Hydrogen Cooler Pump - A pump that delivers diesel treated cooling water to the hydrogen coolers in #8 and #9 Generators.
Hydrogen Embrittlement - (1) Brittleness of metal, resulting from the occlusion of hydrogen (usually as a by-product of pickling or by co-deposition in electroplating). (2) A condition of low ductility resulting from hydrogen absorption and internal pressure developed subsequently. Electrolytic copper exhibits similar results when exposed to reducing atmosphere at elevated temperatures.
Hydrostatic Test - 600 psi feed water test on a down boiler to check for leaks.
HYL I, HYL III - Processes for producing DRI and HBI developed by Hylsa. The processes reduce iron ore lump or pellets with reformed natural gas in a vertical shaft furnace. The HYL I process uses four fixed-bed reactors; HYL III uses a single-shaft furnace.
Hypereutectoid Steel - A steel containing more than the eutectoid percentage of carbon (0.83 wt.%).
Hypoeutectoid Steel - A steel containing less than the eutectoid percentage of carbon (0.83 wt. %).
Hysteresis (Cooling Lag) - Difference between the critical points on heating and cooling due to tendency of physical changes to lag behind temperature changes.
Half Hard Temper - (A) In low carbon cold-rolled strip steel, produced by cold rolling to a hardness next to but somewhat softer than full hard temper. (B) In brass mill terminology, half hard is two B&S numbers hard or 20.70% thickness reduction. (C) In Stainless Steel Strip, Tempers are based on minimum tensile or yield strength. For Chromium-Nickel grades Half-Hard Temper 150,000 T.S., 110,000 Y.S.Min.
Hammer Forging - Forging in which the work is deformed by repeated blows. Compare with press forging.
Hard Drawing - Drawing metal wire through a die to reduce cross section and increase tensile strength.
Hard Drawn - Wire or tubing drawn to high tensile strength by a high degree of cold work.
Hard Temper - (A) (For steel see Full Hard Temper) (B) In brass mill terminology. Hard Temper is four B&S numbers hard or 37.1% reduction.
Hardenability - In a ferrous alloy, the property that determines the depth and distribution of hardness induced by quenching.
Hardenability - The ability of a metal, usually steel, to harden in depth as distinguished from the terms hardness.
Hardenability - In ferrous alloys, the property that determines the depth and distribution of hardness induced by quenching.
Hardened and Tempered Spring Steel Strip - A medium or high carbon quality steel strip which has been subjected to the sequence of heating, quenching and tempering.
Hardening - Increasing the hardness by suitable treatment, usually involving heating and cooling.
Hardening - Any process which increases the hardness of a metal. Usually heating and quenching certain iron base alloys from a temperature either within or above the critical temperature range.
Hardness - Degree to which a metal will resist cutting, abrasion, penetration, bending and stetching. The indicated hardness of metals will differ somewhat with the specific apparatus and technique of measuring. For details concerning the various types of apparatus used in measuring hardness, See Brinell Hardness, Rockwell Hardness, Vickers Hardness, Scleroscope Hardness. Tensile Strength also is an indication of hardness.
Hardness (indentation) - Resistance of a metal to plastic deformation by indentation. Various hardness tests such as Brinell, Rockwell and Vickers may be used. In the Vickers test, a diamond pyramid with an included face angle of 136 is used as the indenter.
Heat of Steel - The product of a single melting operation in a furnace, starting with the charging of raw materials and ending with the tapping of molten metal and consequently identical in its characteristics.
Heat Tinting - Colouration of a metal surface through oxidation by heating to reveal details of structure.
Heat Treatment - Altering the properties of a metal by subjecting it to a sequence of termperature changes, time of retention at specific temperature and rate of coolingtherfrom being as important as the temperature itself. Heat treatment usually markedly affects strength, hardness, ductility, malleability, and similar properties of both metals and their alloys.
Heat-Affected Zone - That portion of the base metal which was not melted during brazing, cutting, or welding, but whose microstructure and physical peoperties were altered by the heat.
Heat-Affected Zone - That portion of the base metal which was not melted during brazing, cutting or welding, but within which microstructure and physical properties were altered by the treatment.
Hematite - The oxide of iron of highest valency which has a composition close to the stoichiometric composition Fe2O3.
Homogenizing - Holding at high temperature to eliminate or decrease chemical segregation by diffusion.
Homogenizing Annealing - An annealing treatment carried out at a high temperature, approaching the solidus temperature, for a sufficiently long time that inhomogeneous distributions of alloying elements are reduced by diffusional processes.
Honing - Removing stock generally on the internal cylindrical surface of a workpiece with an abrasive stick mounted in a holder.
Hot Dip - In steel mill practice, a process wherby ferrous alloy base metals are dipped into molten metal, usually zinc, tin, or terne, for the purpose of fizing a rust resistant coating.
Hot Short - Brittleness in hot metal.
Hot Shortness - Brittleness in metal in the hot forming range.
Hot Top - (1) A reservoir, thermally insulated or heated, to hold molten metal on top of a mold to feed the ingot or casting as it contracts on solidifying to avoid having pipe or voids.
Hot Working - Deformation under conditions that result in recrystallization.
Hydrogen Embrittlement - A condition low ductility in metals resulting from the absorbtion of hydrogen.
Hypereutectoid Alloy - In a eutectoid system, any alloy containing more than the eutectoid concentration of solute.
Hypereutectoid Steel - A steel having more than the eutectoid percentage of carbon.
Hypoeutectic Alloy - In a eutectic system, any alloy containing less than the eutectic concentration of solute.
Hypoeutectoid Steel - Steel with less than the eutectoid percentage of carbon.