La - Chemical symbol for Lanthanum

LS - Limited service pipe not meeting specification, usually rejected at the mill

LT - Loaded trucks-used in price quotation to indicate seller fee for handling

LTC - Long thread and coupling (OCTG casing connection)

Lace - Area where the strip is joined together (with wire, bands, etc.) after being broken.

Lacquer - A coating composition which is based on synthetic thermoplastic film forming material dissolved in organic solvent and which dries primarily by solvent evaporation during stoving operations.

Ladle - Metal receptacle frequently lined with refractories used for transporting and pouring molten metal. Types include hand bull, crane, bottom-pour, holding, teapot, shank, lip-pour.

Ladle Analysis - A term applied to the chemical analysis representative of a heat of steel as reported by the producer. It is determined by analyzing a test ingot sample obtained during the pouring of the steel from a ladle.

Ladle Metallurgy Furnace (LMF) - An intermediate steel processing unit that further refines the chemistry and temperature of molten steel while it is still in the ladle. The ladle metallurgy step comes after the steel is melted and refined in the electric arc or basic oxygen furnace, but before the steel is sent to the continuous caster.

Ladle, Bottom-Pour - Ladle from which metal flows through a nozzle in the bottom.

Ladle, Bull - A large ladle for caring molten metal. Frequently used to designate a transfer ladle.

Ladle, Lip-Pour - Ladle in which the metal is poured over a lip.

Ladle, Teapot - A ladle in which, by means of an external spout, metal is removed from the bottom rather than the top of the ladle.

Lag - One of two types of relationships between voltage and current that describes what the power factor is doing. The other is lead. In a typical motor circuit that has much inductance, the current will lag the voltage and power factor is said to be lagging.

Lagging - Slack in the strip.

Lamellar Tear - A system of cracks or discontinuities aligned generally parallel to the worked surface of a plate. Usually associated with a fusion weld in thick plate.

Laminations - Imperfections resulting from the presence of foreign inclusions, laps, or blisters typically aligned parallel to the worked surface or rolling direction of the metal.

Lance, Oxygen - A device, consisting of steel pipe, tubing, oxygen source, and controls which uses the heat of burning steel pipe for melting. Frequently used to open frozen tape or slag holes.

Land - The surface on the periphery of a rotary cutting tool such as a milling sutter,drill tap or reamer which joins the face of the flute or tooth to make up the basic cutting edge.

Lanthanides - Commonly referred to as 'Rare Earth' metals. Examples Neodymium, Lanthanum and Ytrrium.

Lap - A surface defect, appearing as a seam, caused by fording over hot metal,fins, or sharp corners and then rolling or forging them into the surface, but not welding them.

Lard oil - A cutting oil made from animal fats usually mixed with mineral oils to reduce its cost and improve its quality.

Lateral Bow - See Bow, Lateral

Lateral Expansion - A measured property used in Charpy Impact Testing. Refers to the increase width of the specimen after fracture.

Lattice - Space lattice. Lattice lines and lattice planes are lines and planes chosen so as to pass through collinear lattice points, and non-collinear lattice points, respectively.

Lauders Lines - Elongated surface markings or depressions caused by localized plastic deformation that results from discontinuous (in homogeneous) yielding. Also known as lauders bands, hartmann lines, piobert lines or stretchers.

Layout Sample - A prototype forging or a cast used to determine conformance for designed demensions

L-D Process - An oxygen steel making Process named after the towns in Austria, Linz and Donawitz, where it was first developed. It is a modified Bessemer process, steel is produced in a solid bottom converter by injection of oxygen into the molten iron bath from a water cooled lance inserted through the converter mouth. Present day BOS (basic oxygen steelmaking) plants are developments of the L-D Process.

Leaching - A process in which metal is extracted from mined ore by means of adding a soluble substance. Commonly used in gold mining.

Lead - Chemical symbol Pb. Very soft, bluish-white metal; highly malleable and ductile; poor conductor of electricity, but good noise-dampening material; resistant to corrosion and radiation. Obtained from galena ore. Major end use is storage batteries, which accounts for 60% of world lead consumption. Also used ammunition, but has declining use in paints, plumbing equipment and cable coverings because of its toxicity. Metal also used to dampen noise in containers for corrosive liquids and as radiation shields for x-ray and nuclear reactors.

Lead Hole - See Pilot Hole

Lead Screw - The long precision screw located in front of the lathe bed geared to the spindle and used for cutting threads. Also, the table screw on the universal milling machine when geared to the indexing head for helical milling.

Lead-Time - Delivery time for an item of inventory to be moved from a source location to a destination via a specific route. Detail is specific to the level of the location. Also the time to produce a customer's order from order placement to shipment.

Leaded Steels - When added to steel, lead does not go into solution but exists in a very finely divided state along the grain boundries. It greatly assists machinability as it acts as a lubricant between the steel and the tool face. Lead is normally added in amounts between 0.15-0.35% and when combined with similar amounts of sulphur, optimum machinability is attained as in such steel as B 970 230M07 Pb.

Leak Through - Unwanted steam or water flow through a closed valve.

Leakoff - Excess steam and condensate water that leaks out through the packing gland.

LEFM (Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics) - A method of fracture analysis that can determine the stress required to induce fracture instability in a structure with a crack like flaw of know size and shape.

Legacy Costs - Any costs that are associated with prior operations. Employee liabilities (pensions and health care benefits) and environmental cleanup costs usually are included under this moniker.

Level Indicator - A device (electronic or mechanical) that shows the volume of oil in a tank.

Level Transient Response Control - Changes response time of drum level controller.

Leveler Chatter - See Mark, Chatter (Roll or Leveler)

Leveler Mark - See Dent, Repeating

Leveler Streak - See Streak, Leveler

Leveling - The process by which a leveling machine flattens metal strip, coil, or sheets by bending it up and down over the interrupting arcs of upper and lowers sets of long, slender work rolls. Machines generally employ 17, 19, or 21 relatively small diameter rolls whose deflection under load is controlled by additional back-up rollers and a rigid frame.

Leveling Line - A process to flatten any shape deficiencies (wavy edges and buckles) in the sheet, prior to final shipment. Most cold-rolled sheet initially has a crowned cross-section that, if such a shape is undesirable to the customer, must be flattened in the leveling line.

Leveling, Roller - Leveling carried out by bending

Leveling Rolls - A set of five adjustable rolls that flatten or level the front end strip of steel when running through the #1 and #2 feeders.

Leveling, Stretcher - Leveling carried out by uniaxial tension

Leveling, Tension - Leveling continuously carried out by uniaxial stretching usually with the assistance of bending

Leveling, Thermal - Leveling carried out at an elevated temperature under an applied load normal to the surface to be flattened

Li - Chemical symbol for Lithium.

Life Cycle Costing - An accounting method of costing where expenses are allocated over the life of the product. Life cycle costs are often lower for stainless steel than for alternatives despite a higher initial outlay, because stainless products generally last longer and require little maintenance.

Lift - 1) Device that moves coils up and down from the reels. 2) One move of the crane; lifts removed refer to the number of crane pickups.

Light Gauge - (Defect) Product with a thickness below the customer's minimum gauge tolerance.

Light Gauge Steel - Very thin steel sheet that has been temper-rolled or passed through a cold-reduction mill. Light gauge steel normally is plated with tin or chrome for use in food containers.

Light Metal - One of the low-density metals such as aluminum, magnesium, titanium, beryllium, or their alloys.

Light Special Treatment - A surface treatment of dried-in-place chromate for Weirton Steel's electrogalvanized product (Weirzin) which provides corrosion resistance. A lighter film weight is applied as compared to special treatment. (See Special Treatment).

Light-Gauge Steel - Very thin steel sheet that has been temper-rolled or passed through a cold-reduction mill. Light gauge steel normally is plated with tin or chrome for use in food containers.

Limiting Range of Stress - The greatest range of stress that a metal can withstand for an indefinite number of cycles without failure. If exceeded, the metal fractures after a certain number of cycles, which decreases as the range of stress increases.

Limiting Ruling Section - The maximum diameter of cross section of a bar or compnent in which certain specified mechanical properties are achieved after heat treatment.

Limits - A term used to determine a minimum and maximum. In a mechanism, it should denote the minimum and maximum sizes for each part, between which the parts will function properly in conjunction with each other an outside of which they will not. The words Limits and tolerances are often interchanged, tolerance represents the difference between the minimum and maximum limits.

Limits of Proportionality - The stress )load divided by original area of cross section of the test piece) at which the strain (elongation per unit of gauge Legth) ceases to be proportional to the corresponding stress. It is usually determined from a load-elongation line ceases to be straight.

Line - Any hose, pipe or tubing used to carry oil, grease, air, water or gas.

Line Marking - Lines are used as the identifying marks on the heavy Tin coated side of the strip to identify it to the customer.

Line Pipe - Pipe used in the surface transmission of oil, natural gas and other fluids.

Line Speed - Speed at which the coil is processed through the line; Platers may run 1800+ feet per minute.

Lineal Footage Counter - Electronic device used to count lineal footage of a coil.

Liner - The slab of coating metal that is placed on the core alloy and is subsequently rolled down to clad sheet as composite

Line, Flow - The line pattern which shows the direction of flow on the surface

Line, Looper - Closely spaced symmetrical lines on the surface of metal which has undergone non-uniform deformation, usually in a drawing operation

Line, Luders - Elongated surface markings or depressions appearing in patterns caused by localized plastic deformation that results from non-uniform yielding

Line, Weld - See Seam, Extrusion

Lining - Inside refractory layer of firebrick, clay, sand, or other material in a furnace or ladle.

Lining, Monolithic - A lining made without the customary layers and joints of a brick wall. Usually made by tamping or casting refractory material into place, drying, and then burning in place on the job.

Link - A pipe loop that connects one header to another.

Lip of a Drill - The sharp cutting edge on the end of a twist drill.

Liquid Carburising - A widely used method of case-hardening steel that eliminates scaling and the tendency to decarburisation and results in clean components. Sodium cyanide is the common media for this process, usually heated within the range of 900-930oC. It is advisable to pre-heat the components in neutral salts to avoid a temperature drop resulting from immersing cold components into the cyanide. After carburising, either single quench hardening or refining and hardening and tempering is carried out.

Liquid Penetrant Testing - A nondestructive testing method suitable for evaluating the surface integrity of non-magnetic and ferro-magnetic parts

Liquidation - In commodities market parlance, selling long positions to counterbalance previous buying.

Loading - A condition caused by grinding the wrong material with a grinding wheel or using too heavy a grinding action.

Loading Line Valve - Valve which isolates or stops a loading line signal.

Loading Lines - Lines that supply a pressure signal to a control device or measuring instrument.

Loading Valve - A type of single solenoid valve that when energized allows the running C.V.C. and A.G.C. pumps to build up pressure.

Location - A coding system that defines the physical placement of materials, usually to a high degree of specificity.

Location ID - The building, floor, and "cluster" segments of the location string.

Lock - A condition in which the parting line of a forging is not all in one plane

Lock Out / Tag Out - Terminology used to describe the process of securing an energy source so that work may be done. This is accomplished by locking out all the energy sources pertaining to the device, tagging out the resources, and trying out the device to make sure that it is de-energized and safe for work to be done.

Lockseam Test - A test performed on a galvanized product to evaluate the adherence of the zinc to the steel substrate.

Log - See Extrusion Log

Log Sheet - Sheet on which operational data from the instruments and feed water plant is recorded.

Logistics - The science of identifying, maintaining, and transporting materials.

Long - In commodities market parlance, buying more futures contracts than you sell.

Long Belt - An adjustable belt, located on the seventh floor of the boiler house, which carries coal to the desired coal bay.

Long Products - Classification of steel products that includes bar, rod and structural products, that are "long", rather than "flat".

Long Transverse Direction - For plate, sheet and forgings, the direction perpendicular to the longitudinal direction which is also at right angles to the thickness of the product. See also Longitudinal Direction

Longitudinal Bow - See Bow, Longitudinal

Longitudinal Corrugatiopn - A longitudinal condition similar to transverse bow except that the sense of the curvature changes sign at least once across the width

Loop Cellar - Area under the line where the strip accumulates for making a weld while the line is running (entry end loop cellar), or for taking a coil off while the line is running (delivery end loop cellar).

Loop Section - Area where the strip accumulates in order for the line to run continuously while other sections of the line are stopped to begin and complete the processing of another coil.

Loop Tower - 1) Area at the entry end of #5 Line where the strip accumulates enabling the line to continue running while making a weld. 2) Collecting unit used for storing steel. This enables the Entry or Delivery End of the line to stop without stopping production.

Looper Cars - Strip accumulators that allow for continuous running of the line while welds are made. On #5 Pickler, one looper car, which can accumulate about 900 ft., is located in the basement on No. 1 level (entry end). The second looper car, located on No. 2 level halfway between the basement and the floor level, will also accumulate about 900 ft. There is a total of four loop sections.

Looper line - See Line Looper

Loose Material - During forging operations, pieces of flash often break loose necessitating cleaning of the dies between forging blows; this is usually accomplished by lubricating the die while air is blown on it. Insufficient cleaning results in pieces of flash becoming imbedded in the surface of the forging. Such forgings are often salvaged by removing the loose pieces and hot re-forging to fill out the depressions.

Loose Molding - The molding process utilizing unmounted patterns. Gates and runners are usually cut by hand.

Loose Piece - 1) Core box: part of the core box which remains embedded in the core and is removed after lifting off the core box. 2) Pattern: laterally projecting part of a pattern so attached that it remains in the mold until the body of the pattern is drawn. Back-draft is avoided by this means. 3) Permanent mold: part which remains on the casting and is removed after the casting is ejected from the mold.

Loose Wrap - A coil that is not wound tight. Using too little tension when winding causes this condition.

Lost Foam Process - Casting process in which a foam pattern is removed from the cavity by the molten metal being poured.

Lost Foam - A casting process in which a foam pattern is replaced by molten in a flask filled with loose sand to form a casting.

Lot, Heat Treat - Material of the same mill form, alloy, temper, section and size traceable to one heat-treat furnace load (or extrusion charge or billet in the case of press heat-treated extrusions) or, if heat treated in a continuous furnace, charge consecutively during and 8-hour period

Lot, Inspection - (1)For non-heat treated tempers, an identifiable quantity of material of the same mill form, alloy, temper, section and size submitted for inspection at one time. (2) for heat treated tempers, an identifiable quantity of material of the same mill form, alloy, temper, section and size traceable to a heat treat lot or lots and submitted for inspection at one time. (For sheet and plate, all material of the same thickness is considered to be of the same size.)

Lot Number - Identifies groups of coils for a particular customer order to be processed at a certain time; identifies a particular group of coils to load.

Louvers - Mechanical devices that control air intake of F.D.and

Low Brass - 80% cu. A copper-Zinc alloy containing 20% zinc. Is a light golden color, very ductile, suitable for cupping, drawing, forming, etc. Because of its good strength and corrosion resistance it is used for flexible metal gose, metal bellows, etc.

Low Carbon Steels - Contain from 0.10 to 0.30% carbon and less than 0.60% manganese. (The product of Basic Oxygen, Bessemer, Open Hearth or Electric Processes.)

Low Coating - A condition that occurs when the coating thickness is less than customer or UL specifications

Low Pressure Steam - Steam generated as exhaust from the turbo generators and/or desuperheaters used to meet process and plant heating requirements. Low pressure steam is produced at 225 psi and 550 degrees Fahrenheit.

Low Stress Scratching Abrasion - Abrasion involving near zero impingement angle for the striking particle, also parallel flow erosion.

Low-Carbon Steel - Steel with less than 0.005% carbon is more ductile (malleable): It is capable of being drawn out or rolled thin for use in automotive body applications. Carbon is removed from the steel bath through vacuum degassing.

Lowboy - (or Stabilizer Roll) Submerged roll in the pot used to stabilize the strip as it exits the pot before entering the dies.

Lube, High - Lubricant limit exceeds the maximum agreed upon limit measured in weight per unit area

Lube, Low - Failure of the lubricant to meet the agreed upon minimum limit measured in weight per unit area

Lubricate - Swabbing or spraying the dies with lubricant to assist in initial flow and to facilitate ejection of the forging.

Luders Lines (Steel) - (Characteristic of No. 5 Yemper-Not a defect in No. 5 dead soft temper.) Long vein-like marks appearing on the surface of certain metals, in the direction of the maximum shear stress, when the metal is subjected to deformation beyond the field point.

Luster - Described as refelective,frosted,shiny or dull

Lamination - An abnormal structure resulting in a separation or weakness aligned generally parallel to the worked surface of the metal.

Laminations - A defect appearing in sheets or strips as a segregation or in layers. To become divided, caused by gas pockets in the ingot.

Laminations - Metal defects with separation or weakness generally aligned parallel to the worked surface of the metal. May be the result of pipe, blisters, seams, inclusions, or segregation elongated and made directional by working. Lamination defects may also occur in metal-powder compacts.

Lap - A surface defect appearing as a seam, caused by folding over hot metal, fins or sharp corners and then rolling or forging them into the surface, but not welding them.

Lap-Weld - A term applied to a weld formed by lapping two pieces of metal and then pressing or hammering, and applied particularly to the longitudinal joint produced by a welding process for tubes or pipe, in which the edges of the skelp are beveled or scarfed so that when they are overlapped they can be welded together.

Lath Martensite - Martensite formed, partly in steel containing less than about 1.0% C and solely in steels containing less than about 0.5% C, as parallel arrays or packets of lath-shape units about 0.1 to 0.3 m thick, and having a habit plane that is close to {111}.

Leveling - Flattening rolled metal sheet or strip.

Light Metals - Metal and alloys that have a low specific gravity, such as beryllium, magnesium and aluminum.

Liquation - Partial melting of an alloy.

Liquidus - In a constitutional diagram, the locus of points representing the temperatures at which various components commence freezing on cooling or finish melting on heating.

Lithographic Sheet Aluminum - Sheet having a superior surface on one side with respect to freedom from surface imperfections and supplied with a maximum degree of flatness, for use as a plate in offset printing.

Long Terne - A term applying to steel sheets that have been terne coated (Lead and Tin) by immersion in a bath of Terne Metal.

Longitudinal Direction - The principal direction of flow in a worked metal.

Low-Hydrogen Electrode - A covered arc-welding electrode that provides an atmosphere around the arc and molten weld metal which is low in hydrogen.

Luders Lines or Bands - Elongated surface markings or depressions caused by localized plastic deformation that results form discontinuous (inhomogeneous) yielding.