PEB - Plain end beveled.

P - Chemical symbol for phosphorus

P/C - An abbreviation for the pre-coat section of the line.

P1 - In production, the acceptable quality level.

P2 - In production, lot tolerance.

PEB Plain end beveled - NULL

Pack Hardening (Park Carburizing) - See Case Harding

Packing - Material that prevents water from coming out through the packing gland on a pump.

Packing Grease - A type of grease used to keep a seal and prime on a pump.

Packing or Packing Material - Sand, gravel, mill scale or similar materials used to support castings packed in annealing pots, to prevent possible warpage under high temperatures.

Padding - The process of adding metal to a cross section of a casting wall, usually extending from a riser, to ensure adequate feed to a localized area where a shrink would occur if the added metal were not present.

Palladium - Chemical symbol Pd. A major component in the production of petrochemcial catalysts.

Pancake Forging - A rough forged shape which may be obtained quickly with a minimum of tooling. It usually requires considerable machining to attain the finish size.

Panel Spalling Test - A test using a panel of the refractory being tested to provide a reference to spalling behavior.

Panic Button - A small control button used in situations that require stopping the line without losing power to the line.

Panoramic Analyzer - An instrument for analyzing sounds and displaying the results either on an oscilloscope or a graph.

Pans - The area beneath the conveyor belts in the coal bucket area.

Paper Drum - Paper insert placed on the reel around which the coil is wound. The drum is used to eliminate damage in the center of the coil. Certain customers may require that coils are to be shipped with this paper drum.

Paper Interleaved - To prevent damage to the surface during shipment,handling or storage. The material is frequently coiled with a large roll of paper paid off at the same time so that between each wrap of metal there is a qrap of paper. This paper between the steel wraps prevents the surface of the metal from rubbing against each other to spoil the surface.

Papping Plate - A metal plate attached to a pattern to prevent injury to the pattern and assist in loosening it from the sand.

Parallel - (Setting on Welder) Temperature setting on transformer used to weld heavy (>.040) gauge steel.

Parent Coil - A coil that has been processed to final temper as a single unit. The parent coil may subsequently be cut into two or more smaller coils or into individual sheets or plates to provide the required width and length.

Parent Plate - A plate that has been processed to final temper as a single unit. The parent plate may subsequently be cut into two or more smaller plates to provide the required width and length.

Parkerizing - A proprietary method of producing a protective phosphate coating on ferrous metals. Parker A treatment involves immersing in a bath of acid manganese phosphate. The Parker D is a modification using acid zinc phosphate with a nitrate iron as accelerator.

Parlanti Casting Process - A proprietary permanent mold process using dies of aluminum with a controlled rate of heat transfer.

Parsons Duncan Process - A method of casting steel ingots wherein the top layer of the mold is heated and the last to solidify.

Parted Pattern - A pattern made in two or more parts.

Partial - IMIS action indicating that part of the final produced coil weight is credited to one turn and the balance of the weight is credited to the next turn.

Partially Graphitized Cast Iron - A blackheart malleable casting only partly graphitized in annealing, giving a mixture of black and white. Sometimes termed salt and pepper fracture.

Particle Counter - A testing device used to measure the amount and size of solid contamination in the hydraulic oil.

Particle Counter Computer - The part of the particle counter that tabulates and supplies a printout of the oil test results.

Particle Counter Sampler - The part of the particle counter which contains the sensor and related parts that the hydraulic oil passes through while being tested.

Particulate Matter - In air pollution control, solid or liquid particles, except water, visible with or without a microscope, that make up the obvious portion smoke.

Parting - The operation of cutting off a piece from a part held in the chuck of a lathe

Parting Agent - See Release Agent

Parting Line - A line on a pattern or casting corresponding to the separation between the cope and drag portions of a sand mold. A condition unique to stepped extrusions where more than on e cross section exists in the same extruded shape. A stepped shape uses a split die for the minor or small cross section and after its removal, another die behind it for the major configuration. Slightly raised fins can appear on that portion of the shape where the two dies meet . See also Profile, Stepped Extruded.

Pass - (1) A single transfer of metal through a stand of rolls. (2) The open space between two grooved rolls through which metal is processed. (3) The weld metal deposited in one run along the axis of a weld. (4) A term indicating the process of passing metal through a rolling mill

Pass Line - 1) Measurement used to level all rolls. 2) The travel direction through which a strip is processed. When out of alignment, it requires adjusting so that the coil can be properly processed.

Passivated Tin Plate - Tin plate that has been chemically treated to control tin oxide formation and growth.

Passivation - The changing of the chemically active surface of a metal to a much less reactive state. Contrast with activation.

Passivator - An inhibitor which changes the potential of a metal to a more cathodic value.

Passivity - The property of some metals to become abnormally inactive towards certain reagents.

Patching - Repair of a furnace lining; repair of a mold core.

Pattern - A form of wood, plastic, metal, or other material around which molding material is placed to make a mold.

Pattern Draft - The taper on vertical elements in a pattern which allows easy separation of pattern from compacted sand mixture.

Pattern Layout - Full-sized drawing of a pattern showing its arrangement and structure features.

Pattern Welding - A process in which strips or other small sections of iron or steel are twisted together and then forge welded. Homogeneity and toughness are thereby improved. A regular decorative pattern can be developed in the final product. COmmonly used for making swords as early as the 3rd century A.D.

Patternmaker - A craftsman engaged in production of foundry patterns from wood, plastic, or metals, such as aluminum, brass, etc.

Patternmakers Shrinkage - Contraction allowance made on patterns to compensate for the decrease in dimensions as the solidified casting cools in the mold from freezing temperature of the metal to room temperature. Pattern is made larger by the amount of contraction that is characteristic of the particular metal to be used.

Pawl - A pivoted lever or sliding bolt that secures as an automatic directional table control on a grinder.

Pay Off - Entry end unwrapping of coil and the beginning of the production process.

Payoff End - The entry end of the line.

Payoff Reel - Reel on which the coil to be processed is loaded. This reel is sometimes referred to as the entry end reel.

PCE - Pyrometric Cone Equivalent

Pd - Chemical symbol for palladium

Peak Demand - Amount of power purchased for the 30-minute periods during what are known as peak hours. Peak hours are 7 00 am to 10 00 pm, Monday through Saturday. All other hours are off-peak.

Peak Earnings - The ultimate earnings level of a company at the top of the business cycle. This is the expected profit during the time of the highest commodity demand and the strongest product pricing.

Peak Time - The time during which the sheets of metal are held at the recommended temperature for full cure is known as the "Peak Time".

Pearlite - A lamella aggregate of ferrite and carbide, the structure of pearlite can appear fine or coarse depending on processing.

Pearlite - Lamellar structure resembling mother of pearl. A compound of iron and carbon occurring in steel as a result of the transformation of austenite into aggregations of ferrite and iron carbide.

Peel - The process by which several outside laps of a coil are taken off to bring it down to gauge.

Peeler Table - The 32" extension connected to the threading table to assist in threading hot-rolled coils.

Peeling - Separation of the zinc coating from the steel strip.

Peen - Peening action obtained by impact of metal shot, often used to improve fatigue properties by putting the surface in compression.

Peeners - Automatic chisels on welder wheels that remove metal slag.

Pellets - Iron ore or limestone particles are rolled into little balls in a balling drum and jardened by heat. (See Agglomerating Processes)

Pencil Core - A core projecting to the center of a blind riser allowing atmospheric pressure to force out feed metal.

Penetrameter - A strip of metal with stepped thickness variation and with holes at varying depths; used in radiography to indicate the sensitivity of the radiograph.

Penetrant Inspection - A method of non-destructive testing for determining the existence and extent of discontinuities that are open to the surface in the part being inspected. The indications ore made visible through the use of a dye or fluorescent chemical in the liquid employed as the inspection medium.

Penetration, Metal - Condition where molten metal has penetrated into the sand, resulting in a mixture of metal and sand adhering to the casting.

Percent Reduction - Expression of reduction in gauge during any rolling process. Percent reduction equals starting gauge minus finish gauge after rolling divided by starting gauge times 100.

Periclase - Natural magnesia in nodular form, formed by heating.

Peripheral Hoses - Hoses that carry recycled water from the peripheral prequench spray header to the area of the scrubber known as the "wet elbow".

Peritectic Grade - Crack sensitive grade of steel with .08 to .16% Carbon.

Perlite - A highly siliceous volcanic rock which can be expended by heating into a porous mass of particles. Perlite can be used as an insulation in foundry sand mixtures. Not to be confused with Pearlite.

Permanent Mold - A metal mold of two or more parts; not an ingot mold. It is used repeatedly for the production of many casting of the same form.

Ph - Chemical cymbol for lead.

pH - A symbol denoting the negative logarithm of the concentration of the hydrogen ion in gram-atoms per liter, used in expressing both acidity and alkalinity; pH 3Dlog 1/H per liter. An important factor in foundry sand control, pH7 is neutral; values less than 7 acid, and higher than 7, basic.

Phase - Term used to describe one of the three branches of electricity in most high voltage circuits. The three phases all carry power simultaneously.

Phase Diagram - A graphic representation of the equilibrium temperature and composition limits of phase fields reactions in an alloy system. In a binary system, temperature is usually the ordinate and composition the abscissa. Ternary and more complex systems require several two-dimensional diagrams to show the temperature - composition variables completely. In alloy systems, pressure is usually considered constant, although it may be treated as an additional variable.

Phenolic - A type of resin made from a condensation reaction of phenols and aldehydes. Resultant films have a high degree of chemical resistance with limited flexibility properties.

Phenolic Resin (One-Step) - "A resin made by the polymerization of a phenol with an aldehyde; used a binder for cores and sand molds. See Urea-Form-aldehyde Resin "

Phosphatized - See Bonderized Coating.

Phosphor Bronze - Copper base alloys, with 3.5 to 10% of tin, to which has been added in the molten state phosphorus in varying amounts of less than 1% for deoxidizing and strengthening purposes. Because of excellent toughness, strength, fine grain, resistance to fatigue and wear, and chemical resistance, these alloys find general use as springs and in making fittings. It has corrosion resisting properties comparable to copper.

Phosphor Bronze Strip - A copper-base alloy containing up to 10% tin, which has been deoxidized with phosphorus in varying amounts of less than 1%. Temper is imparted by cold rolling, resulting in greater tensile strength and hardness than in most copper-base alloys or either of its alloying elements copper or tin. The various tempers from One Number Hard to Ten Numbers Hard are classified in hardness by the number of B&S Gages reduction in dimension from the previous soft or as-annealed state. Phosphor Bronze is not heat treatable for purposes of hardness development. It does not withstand elevated temperatures very well and should not be used in service above 225 (degrees) F. even after stress relieving treatment at 325 (degrees) to 350 (degrees) F. It has excellent electrical properties, corrosion resistant comparable to copper; great toughness and resistance to fatigue. Rated good for soft soldering, silver alloy brazing, oxyacetylene, carbon arc and resistance welding.

Phosphorus - (Chemical symbol P) Element No. 15 of the periodic system; atomic weight 30.98. Non-metallic element occurring in at least three allotropic forms; melting point 111 (degrees) F.; boiling point 536 (degrees) F.; specific gravity 1.82. In steels it is usually undesirable with limits set in most specifications. However, it is specified as an alloy in steel to prevent the sticking of light-gage sheets; to a degree it strengthens low carbon steel; increases resistance to corrosion, and improves machinability in free-cutting steels. In the manufacture of Phosphor Bronze it is used as a deoxidizing agent.

Phosphor-Bronze - Copper-based alloys with 3.5% to 10% tin, to which up to 1% phosphorous has been added in the molten state for deoxidizing and strengthening purposes. Because of excellent toughness, strength fine grain,resistance to fatique and wear and chemical resistance, these alloys find generak use as springs and in making steel fittings. It has corrosion-resistant properties comparable to copper.

Photoetch Quality - Product description for USSM flatroll coils which requires excellent finish and critical flatness.

Photomicrograph - A photograph of the grain structure of a metal as observed when optically magnified more than 10 diameters. The term micrograph may be used.

Photomicrograph - A photographic reproduction of any object magnified more than ten diameters. The term micrograph may be used.

Physical Metallurgy - The science concerned with the physical and mechanical characteristics of metals and alloys.

Physical Properties - For definitions of specific physical properties refer See

Physical Properties - Those properties familiarly discussed in physics, exclusive of those described under mechanical properties; for example, density, electrical conductivity, co-efficient of thermal expansion. This term often has been used to describe mechanical properties, but this usage is not recommended.

Pick-Off - The transfer of portions of the coating from one surface of the sheet to an adjacent surface due to poor adhesion of the coating

Pickle Brittleness - The brittleness induced in steel when pickled in dilute acid for the purpose of removing the scale. The brittleness is commonly attributed to the absorption of hydrogen by the steel.

Pickle-Only - A coil which is to be cleaned but not coated.

Pickled - Steel that has gone through the Pickler operating unit to remove mill scale or oxide.

Pickled Slit Width - Width of the coil after it has been sidetrimmed at the Pickler.

Pickler - 1) An operating unit that removes iron oxide from a hot rolled product by immersion into a hydrochloric (#3/#5 Picklers) or sulfuric acid solution. 2) The pickler tank contains 5-6% concentrations of sulfuric acid. This solution is kept at a temperature of 180-190 degrees. The purpose of the pickler is to complete the preparation of the steel for plating, by removing any oxides from the surface.

Pickling Liquor - The waste resulting from the pickling process. The liquor consists of acid and water.

Pickup, Repeating - See Dent, Repeating.

Pickup, Roll - Small particles of aluminum and aluminum oxide generated in the roll bite which subsequently transfer to the rolled product. It may be distributed uniformly and/or in streaks. See also Streak, Coating.

Picral - An etchant for ferrous alloys; 4% picric acid in alcohol.

Pierce - In ring rolling, the process of providing a through hole in the center of an upset forging as applied to ring blank preparation.

Pig - Initial post-smelting casting of lead or iron. Named long ago when molten metal was poured through a trench in the ground to flow into shallow earthen holes, the arrangement looked like newborn pigs suckiling. The central channel became known as the sow: and the molds pigs.

Pig Iron - The name for the melted iron produced in a blast furnace, containing a large quantity of carbon (above 1.5%). Named long ago when molten iron was poured through a trench in the ground to flow into shallow earthen holes, the arrangement looked like newborn pigs suckling. The central channel became known as the "sow," and the molds were "pigs."

Pig Iron, Basic - A grade of iron made from the basic open-hearth process of steelmaking; P, 0.40% max. for Northern iron, 0.70 to 0.90% for Southern iron; S 0.05% max. and Si, 1.50%.

Pig Iron, Chateaugay - Pig iron from Chateaugay (New York State) ores very low in phosphorus; copper-free and containing appreciable amounts of titanium.

Piling - A process in which several bars are stacked and hot rolled together with the objective of improving the homogeneity of the final product. Used in primitive iron making.

Piling (Sheet Piling) - A structural steel product with edges designed to interlock; used in the construction of cofferdams or riverbank reinforcement.

Pilot Casting - Casting produced prior to the production run to verify correctness of procedures, materials, and process to be used in production.

Pilot Hole - A starting hole for large drills to serve as a guide, reduce the resistance and aid in maintaining the accuracy of the larger hole. Also called a lead hole.

Pilot Operated Check Valve - Check valve that can allow flow in the opposite direction of the check by application of a pilot pressure that overcomes the check spring tension.

Pilot Pressure - A pressure used to operate different functions of a pilot operated valve.

Pilot Valve - Hydraulic solenoid valve that uses pilot hydraulic pressure to control the movement of another (slave) valve.

Pilots - Natural gas fired device used to provide positive ignition of the boiler fuels.

Pin - External (male)threaded end

Pin Holes - Microscopic imperfection of the coatings,that is, microscopic bare spots, also microscopic holed penetrating through a layer or thickness of light.

Pin Hole Detector - Device that identifies and tabulates the number of pin holes in a coil.

Pinch Mark - See Crease.

Pinch Roll - 1) Roll used to jog the strip forward and backward, and to hold the strip stationary. One is before the welder and the other is between welder and looping pit. 2) Motor-driven rolls used to assist in threading coils, cutting scrap, and making loops for welds.

Pinch Pass - A term applied when, after annealing, sheet or strip is lightly rolled with the object of preventing stretcher lines or kinks on subsequent cold working.

Pinholes - A coating defect consisting of the randomly spaced small round holes (as a straight pin would make in the cured film, which quite often occur in large numbers. The open area (pinhole) usually exposes bare substrate. Contaminated substrate or improperly dispersed lubricant or additive may cause pinholes. Pinholes are typically caused by laminations, inclusions, scratches or gouges.

Pinion Drives - The large gear transmissions that power the finishing mill work rolls.

Pinning - A term used to describe the condition of a file clogged with metal filings causint it to scratch the work.

Pipe - A cavity formed by shrinkage of the metal during solidification, usually occurring in a riser having feeder metal for the casting.

Pipe - Tube in standardized combinations of outside diameter and wall thickness, commonly designated by Nominal Pipe sizes and ANSI Schedule Numbers.

Pipe - A defect that arises during the slidification of steel in the ingot mold. As steel contracts on solidification a central cavity forms in the upper portion of the ingot, if this is not completely removed before rolling into bars a central defect known as pipe results. The rise of piping is considerably reduced on continuously cast steel due to molten steel being available to fill any shrinkage cavity.

Pipe, Drawn - Pipe brought to the final dimensions by drawing through a die.

Pipe, Extruded - Pipe formed by hot extruding

Pipe, Seamless - Extruded or drawn pipe which does not contain any line junctures resulting fron method of manufacture

Pipe, Structural - Pipe commonly used for structural purposes.

Pit (defect) - A sharp depression in the surface of the metal.

PitCock Valve - Small lever controlled valve.

Pitch - The distance from any point on a thread to the corresponding point on the adjacent thread, measured to the axis. Also applied to spur gears.

Pitch circle - The line (circle) of contact between two meshing gears.

Pitch diameter - The diameter of a thread at an imaginary point where the width of the groove and the width of the thread are equal.

Pitch Line - An imaginary line which passes through threads at such points that the length of the part of the line between adjacent threads is equal to the length of the line within a thread.

Pitting - Sharp depressions in the surface of the metal generally attributed to localized chemical attack by a corrosive media. In stainless steels, molybdenum additions (i.e. types 316, 317, 434) help improve pitting resistance.

Pittsburgh Lockseam Tester - (PLS) A device used to show the lock- forming quality of the steel and to detect peeling or flaking.

Plain Cutter - A milling cutter with cutting teeth on the periphery (circumference) only.

Plane, Forging - The plane that includes the principal die face and that is perpendicular to the direction of the ram stroke; when the paaarting is flat, the forging plane coincides with the parting line. See also Forging Plane.

Plane Strain - A stress condition in linear elastic fracture mechanics (See LEFM) in which there is zero strain in a direction normal to both the axis of applied tensile stress and the direction of crack growth. Under plane strain conditions, the plane of fracture instability is normal to the axis of the principal tensile stress.

Planish Rolling - Process which involves light reduction in a single pass on a cold-roling mill.

Plant Load - The amount of power the entire mill is using. It is the total of what we are generating plus what we are purchasing.

Plant/Instrument Air - Compressed air produced to operate pneumatic controls and valves.

Plasma Refining - Process used to reduce sulfur and oxygen to very low levels.

Plaster of Paris - A semi-hydrated form of calcium sulfate made by sintering gypsum to 120 - 130 C (248 - 266F).

Plastic Deformation - Permanent deformation occurring in forming of metal which occurs after elastic limits have been exceeded.

Plate Circle Circle cut from Plate. -

Plate - Carbon steel plates comprise that group of flat-rolled finished steel products within the following size limitaion: 0.180in or thicker, over 48in wide; 0.230in or thicker, over 6in wide; 7.53lb/sq ft or heavier, over 48in wide; 9.62lb/sq ft or heavier, over 6in wide.

Plate Circle Circle cut from Plate. - NULL

Plate, Alclad - Composite plate comprised of an aluminum alloy core having on both surfaces (if on one side only, Alclad One Side Plate) a metallurgically bonded aluminum or aluminum alloy coating that is anodic to the core, thus electrolytically protectin the core against corrosion.

Plate Martensite - Martensite formed, partly in steels containing more than about 0.5% C and solely in steels containing more than about 1.0% C, as lenticular-shape plates on irrational habit planes that are near or {259}A in very-high-carbon steels

Plater - An operating unit which electrolytically applies zinc, chrome or tin to black plate.

Plater Distribution Tank - The tank that holds the plater solution.

Plater Roll - A steel roll used in the plater. The roll has electricity running through it.

Plates, Core Drying - Flat plates of metal on which cores are placed for baking.

Platinum - Chemical symbol Pt. The key material in the manufacture of automaotive catalysts

Platinum Group Metals - Called the noble metals because they are among the scariest of the metallic elements; more important, they are totally imperious to oxidation or corrosion. The family is six metals: Platinum, a white infusible metal with high electrical resistance; Palladium, also white, noted for its strength and high ductility; Iridium, a yellowish mineral with the most corrosion resistance of any metal known; Rhodium, a silver-white metal also found with nickel; Ruthenium, a white metal noted for its hardness; and osmium, a bluish-white metal that is so hard it is difficult to fabricate.

Plattcos - Double-gated valves that allow particulate to drop out of the vacuum gas stream with minimal air loss.

Play - The looseness of fit (slack) between two pieces press fit.

Plugged Die - Galvanize metal obstructions in the which block the air wipe and affect coating.

PMMA - Polymethymethacralate - Foam used in the lost foam process, does release as much carbon as polystyrene.

Pohland Method - A technique for the ultrasonic testing of steel in which a visible image of the defects present in the steel can be shown on a screen.

Poissons Ratio - If a square bar is stressed in a testing machine in the direction of its length increases, there is a contraction in each opposite direction, which produces a decrease in the thickness of the bar. The ratio between the contraction at right angles to a stress and the direct extension is called the Poissons ratio. Its value in steel is in the order of 0.28.

Polishing Filter - oil from the hydraulic system tank through the filters and then back to the tank.

Polymorphism - The ability of a material to exist in more than one crystallographic structure. Numerous metals change in crystallographic structure at transformation temperatures during heating or cooling. If the change is reversible, it is allotropy. The allotropy of iron, particularly the changes between the alpha body-centered and the gamma face centered form, is of fundamental importance in the hardening of steel.

Polystyrene - A polymer of styrene used in making molding products. In particular, used in the lost foam process.

Poor Oiling - Not enough oil on the strip per customer specification.

Poor Slitting - The quality of the slit edge due to bad shape, dull knives, etc.

Pop, Solvent - Blister and/or void in the coating resulting from trapped solvents released during curing process

Porosity - Holes in the produced casting due to: Gasses trapped in the mold, the reaction of molten metal with mosisture in the molten sand, or the imperfect fusion of chaplets with molten metal.

Post-Paint - To paint a manufactured part after at it has been formed.

Postheating - A process used immediately after welding whereby heat is applied to the weld zone either for tempering or for providing a controlled rate of cooling, in order to avoid a hard or brittle structure.

Pot - A vessel for holding molten metal. Also used to refer to the electrolytic reduction cell employed in winning certain metals, such as aluminum, from a fused electrolyte.

Pot Quenching - Quenchinhg carburised parts directly fron the carburising pot or box.

Potable Water - Treated water used for human consumption.

Pouring - Transfer of molten metal from furnace to ladle, ladle to ladle, or ladle into molds.

Pouring Cup - The flared section of the top of the downsprue. It can be shaped by hand in the cope, or be a shaped part of the pattern used to form the downsprue; or may be baked core cup placed on the top of the cope over the downsprue.

Powder Cutting - Introducing iron powder in an oxygen stream to hasten oxygen torch cutting by the combination of fluxing and oxidation. Generally used for cutting stainless steel.

Powder Metals - Fabrication technology in which fine metallic powder is compacted under high pressure and then heated at a temperature slightly below the melting point to solidify the material. Primary users of powder metal parts are auto, electronics and aerospace industries.

Powdered Coal Mill - (Pulverizer) Electrically or steam driven device that crushes coal to a fine powder form and exhausts it into the boiler as fuel.

Powdering - A problem encountered in the field where the iron-zinc coating (from Galvanneal products) comes off the base metal and collects in the die.

Power-Driven Hammer - A forging hammer with steam or air cylinder for raising the ram and augmenting its downward blow.

Power Factor - 1) Inductor flow in the pot. A high number may indicate an obstruction in circulation. 2) Term that describes the relationship between real power (KW) and apparent power (KVA) in a circuit. It is the cosine of the angle between KW and KVA on a phasor drawing of a circuit. (In a phasor drawing, this angle is the same angle formed by the voltage and current relationship.) It is almost always better to run the generators with a lagging power factor (meter pointing to left of zero).

Pre-Paint - To paint a product in coil form and then manufacture it into a final part.

Precious Metals - Relatively scarce, highly corrosion resistant, valuable metals found in periods 5 and 6 (groups VIII and Ib) of the periodic table. They include ruthenium,rhodium,palladium,silver,asmium,iridium,platinum and gold.

Precipitation Hardening - (PH) A small group of stainless steels with high chromium and nickel content, with the most common types having characteristics close to those of martensitic (plain chromium stainless class with exceptional strength) steels. Heat treatment provides this class with its very high strength and hardness. Applications for PH stainless steels include shafts for pumps and valves as well as aircraft parts.

Precipition Heat Treatment - Any of the various aging treatments conducted at elevated temperatures to improve certain mechanical properties through precipitation from solid solution.

Precision - Becomes a prefix to sheet or strip when the thickness of the product falls between 0.005 and 0.015.

Precision Forging - A forging produced to closer tolerances than normally considered standard by the industry.

Prefilter - A filter system containing 16 filter elements that clean the hydraulic oil as it passes from one storage tank to another.

Preform - The forging operation in which stock is preformed or shaped to a predetermined size and contour prior to subsequent die forging operations; the operation may involve drawing,bending,flattening, edging, fullering, rolling or upsetting. The preform operation is not considered to be scheduled operation unless a separate heat is required; usually, when a preform operation is required, it will precede a forging operation and will be performed in conjunction with the forging operation and in the same heat. In ring rolling, a term generally applied to ring blanks of a specific shape to be used for profile (contour) ring rolling.

Preheaters/Air Heaters - Bank of boiler tubes located in the exhaust gas ductwork which preheats the incoming combustion air by transferring heat from the exhaust gases passing through them to the incoming air passing around them. Preheating the air reduces boiler fuel requirements. Some preheated air is used on the powdered coal mills to control powdered coal temperatures.

Preheating - A high-temperature soaking treatment used to change the metallurgical structure in preparation for a subsequent operation, usually applied to the ingot.

Preheating - (1) A general term used to describe heating applied as a preliminary to some further thermal or mechanical treatment. (2) A term applied specifically to tool steel to describe a process in which the steel is heated slowly and uniformly to a temperature below the hardening temperature and is then transferred to a furnace in which the temperature is substantially above the preheating temperature. (3) Nonfer. met.-Heating a metal to a relatively high temperature for a relatively long time in order to change the structure before working. Ingots are homogenized by preheating.

Premium - Cost of an option and/or an amount added to a base price for a material,i.e. added cost beyond the base Comex, LME and/or producer and manufacturer prices.

Prepierce - In ring rolling, a vertically mounted piercing (punching) tool used for preparation of ring blanks on the ring blank press. A tapered tool of various diameters and lengths.

Press Forging - The shaping of metal between dies by mechanical or hydraulic pressure. Usually this is accomplished with a single work stroke of the press for each die station

Press Forming - See Brake Press Bending.

Pressure - 1) Required force necessary on the welder wheels (hydraulic). 2) The force of the fluid in a hydraulic system.

Pressure Chamber - (Cylinder) Part of the particle counter sampler where the oil sample is placed to be drawn for testing.

Pressure Die Casting - "A British term. See Die Casting "

Pressure Gauges on the Pumps - A gauge on the discharge line that displays the output pressure of the pump.

Pressure Line - Any hose, pipe or tubing that supplies pressure (hydraulic force) to a system or component of a system.

Pressure Mottling - See Mottling, Pressure

Pressure-Tight - A term describing a casting free from porosity of the type that would permit leaking.

Pretreated - Steel to which a chemical treatment has been applied to prepare it for future surface treatments such as painting. (See Bonderized, Light Special Treatment, Special Treatment, Weirbrite Clear).

Primary Choke (Choke) - That part of the gating system which most restricts or regulates the flow of metal into the mold cavity.

Primary Metal - Metal extracted from minerals and free of reclaimed metal scrap. Compare with native metal.

Prime - Coil type indicating that the produced coil or lift meets all the requirements of the order.

Prime Box (#1) - Accumulates prime IPM's produced directly off the cutting line at customer plants.

Prime Coil Any - quality reasons.

Prime Weight - The weight of a coil removed from the prime reel of the side trimmer.

Process Capability - The amount of variation in the output of a controlled manufacturing process, the range defined by plus or minus three standard deviations.

Process Control - Flow to pressure for steam flow for oil pressure for 02 blow. Auto/manual that transfers steam supply from flow to pressure or pressure to flow.

Process Parameter - An I.M.I.S.screen used to find customer specifications.

Produced IPM Number - The IPM number assigned to a produced coil by the delivery end of the unit. Any units from the caster get an IPM# when processed.

Product Analysis - In castings, the analysis of the actual part as opposed to the analysis of the steel from which the casting was poured.

Production Welding - Any welding carried out during manufacturing before final delivery to the purchaser. This includes joint welding of casting and finishing welding.

Proeutectoid - The constituent that separates out of a solid solution before the formation of eutectoid.

Profile, class 1 Hollow Extruded - A hollow extruded profile, the void of which is round and 1 inch or more in diameter and whose weight is equally distributed on opposite sides of two or more equally spaced axes

Profile, Class 2 Hollow Extruded - Any hollow extruded profile other than class 1, which does not exceed a 5-inch diameter circumscribing circle and has a single void of not less than 0.375-inch diameter or 0.110-square inch area

Profile, Class 3 Hollow Extruded - Any hollow extruded profile other than Class 1 or Class 2

Profile, Cold-Finished Extruded - A profile produced by cold-finishing a rolled profile

Profile, Cold-Finished Rolled - A profile produced by cold-finishing a rolled profile

Profile, cold-Finished - A profile brought to final dimensions by cold-working to obtain improved surface finish and dimensional tolerance

Profile, Drawn - A profile brought to final dimensions by drawing through a die

Profile, Extruded - A profile produced by hot extruding

Profile, Flute Hollow - A hollow profile having plain inside surfaces and whose outside surfaces comprise regular, longitudinal, concave corrugations with sharp cusps between corrugations.

Profile, Helical Extruded - An extruded profile twisted along its length

Profile, Hollow - A profile any part of whose cross section completely encloses a void.

Profile, lip Hollow - A hollow profile of generally circular cross section and nominally uniform wall thickness with one hollow or solid protuberance or lip parallel to the longitudinal axis; used principally for heat-exchange purpose.

Profile, Pinion Hollow - A hollow profile with regularly spaced, longitudinal serrations outside and round inside, used primarily for making small gears.

Profile, rolled - A profile produced by hot rolling.

Profile, Semihollow - A profile any part of whose cross section is a partially enclosed void the area of which is substantially greater than the square of the width of the gap. The ratio of the area of the void to the square of the gap is dependent on the class of semihollow profile, the alloy and the gap width.

Profile, Solid - A profile other than hollow or semihollow

Profile, Stepped Extruded - An extruded profile whose cross section changes abruptly in area at intervals along its length.

Profile, Streamline Hollow - A hollow profile with a cross section of tear-drop shape.

Profile, Structural - A profile in certain standard alloys, tempers, sizes, and sections, such as angles, channels, H-sections, I-beams, there are two standards, naemllly Aluminum Association Standard and American Standard.

Profile, Tapered Extruded - An extruded profile whose cross section changes continuously in area along its length or specified portion thereof.

Profile - A wrought product that is long in relation to its cross-sectional dimensions which is of a form other than of sheet plate, rod, bar, tube, wire or roll.

Profile Tolerances - A system of locating and tolerancing developed to control the orientation of rough parts in machine fixtures. From locating points on the casting a " perfect profile " is established for all surfaces and features. A tolerance envelope surrounding that profile defines the limitations of an acceptable part.

Profiling - A process that charts the gauge of steel across the width and/or length.

Profilometer - An instrument used to measure the heights and depths of surface features.

Progressive Aging - An aging process in which the temperature of the alloy is continuously increased during the aging cycle. The temperature may be increased in steps or by any other progressive method. Compare with interrupted aging.

Projection Welding - A welding process that uses small projections on one or both components of the weld to localize the heat and pressure, the projections collapse when the weld is made.

Proof Stress - (1) The stress that will cause a specified small permanent set in a material. (2) A specified stress to be applied to a member or structure to indicate its ability to withstand service loads.

Proportional Valve Tester - A device used to determine if a proportional valve is operating properly.

Proportional ValveL - An electronically measured valve capable of a high flow rate and low pressure drop. Suitable for position, speed or force control in hydraulically controlled valves.

Protection Tube - A metal, graphite, or ceramic tube which shrouds and protects the wires of a thermoelectric pyrometer.

Protector - Plastic, steel or composite cap tp protect threasds from damage

psi - Pounds per square inch.

PSI Low Pressure Steam - This low-pressure steam is then used to supplement the low-pressure steam system throughout the plant.

Puddling Process - A process for making wrought iron in which cast orn is melted in a hearth furnace and rabbled with slag and oxide until a pasty mass is obtained. This process was developed by Henry Cort about 1784 and remained in use until 1957, although on a very small scale during the present century.

Pug Mill - A mixing device used to mix materials coming off of #21 conveyor belt.

Pugnill - A mill for mixing foundry sands and sand mixtures consisting essential of a shaft fitted with plows or paddle wheel which revolve in a tub or vat.

Pulverized Coal Injection System (PCI) - A blast furnace enhancement to reduce an integrated mill's reliance on coke (because of environmental problems with its production). Up to 30% of the coke charged into the blast furnace can be replaced by this talcum-like coal powder, which is injected through nozzles at the bottom of the furnace.

Pump - A device that moves oil or grease into a system (in gallons per minute).

Pump Capacity - The gallons per minute that a pump puts out.

Pump Room Master - Controller which monitors the difference in feed water header and steam header pressures at all times and makes changes in pump output to maintain the feed water pressure at 150 psi greater than the steam pressure at all times.

Pump Select Button - Push buttons on the hydraulic systems and the morgoil system control panels that must be pressed to determine if a pump is in off, on or stand-by mode.

Punch - A shearing operation to remove a section of metal as outlined by the inner parting line in a blocked or finished forging: the operation is generally performed on a trim press using a punch die. A tool used in punching holes in metal. The moveable die in a press or forging machine.

Punch Mark - An indentation on the strip caused by dirt, grease, or other foreign matter on a roll.

Punch, Prick - A solid punch with a sharp point, used to mark centers or other locations on metal.

Punchout Machines - A machine used to force the entire sand and casting contents from the molding box in one motion, without the use of vibration.

Pup Coil - A small coil weighing on the average from 1500 to 6000 pounds. These coils usually contain defects that are unacceptable to the average customer.

Purging - Elimination of air and other undesirable gases from furnaces or heating boxes.

Purging Steam - Low-pressure steam used to purge a line or manifold.

Purifier Tank - A vessel containing a baffle or separator through which steam, produced by the boiler continuous blow down flash process, is fed. The purifier separates unwanted carryover, such as dirt or excess moisture, from the steam before it is returned to the system.

Put - An option, but not an obligation to sell. Nonferrous metal producers often buy puts to lock in a price for their metal. It is akin to a price insurance policy. For example, if a producer uses put options to lock in a price of 90 cents per pound and the price falls to 85 cents per pound, he would continue to make 90 cents per pound (See Options and Call).

Put Down Procedure - The concept of material ownership by an operation from the moment it is scheduled for production on that unit, until the delivery of the processed inventory at a strategically predetermined "put-down" location; typically the staging area of the next scheduled operation.

Put on the Tank - A term used when the Oiler opens the condensate line from a turbine and allows it to flow into the condensate tank.

Pyrometallurgy - Chemical metallurgical process dependent upon heat.

Pyrometric Cone - A slender trihedral pyramid made of a mixture of minerals similar in composition to that of a clay or other refractory being tested. Each cone is assigned a number indicating its fusion temperature.

Pyrometric Cone Equivalent (PCE) - An index of refractoriness obtained by heating on a time-temperature schedule a cone of the sample material and a series of standardized pyrometric cones of increasing refractoriness.

Pyrometry - A method of measuring temperature with any type of temperature indicating instruments.

Pack Rolling - Rolling two or more pieces of thin sheet at the same time, a method usually practiced in rolling sheet into thin foil.

Pack Rolling - Hot rolling a pack of two or more sheets of metal; scale prevents the sheets from being welded together.

Pack Rolling - Hot rolling a pack of two or more sheets of metal; scale prevents their being welded together.

Pancake Grain Structure - A structure in which the lengths and widths of individual grains are large compared to their thicknesses.

Pass - A term indicating the process of passing metal through a rolling mill.

Pass - (1) A single transfer of metal through a stand of rolls. (2) The open space between two grooved rolls through which metal is processed. (3) The weld metal deposited in one run along the axis of a weld.

Patenting - A heat treatment applied to medium and high-carbon steel prior to cold drawing to wire. The treatment involves austenitization followed by isothermal transformation at a temperature that produces a microstructure of very fine pearlite.

Patenting - Treatment of steel, usually in wire form, in which the metal is gradually heated to about 1830 (degrees) F., with subsequent colling, usually in air, in a bath of molten lead, or in a fused salt mixture held between 800 (degrees) F. and 1050 (degrees) F.

Patterned or Embossed Sheet - A sheet product on which a raised or indented pattern has been impressed on either on or both surfaces by the use of rolls.

Pearlite - A eutectoid transformation product of ferrite and cementite that ideally has a lamellar structure but that is always degenerate to some extent.

Pearlite - Lamellar structure resembling mother of pearl. A compound of iron and carbon occurring in steel as a result of the transformation of austenite into aggregations of ferrite and iron carbide.

Pearlite - A lamellar aggregate of ferrite and cementite, oftern occurring in steel and case iron.

Peening - Mechanical working of metal by hammer blows or shot impingement.

Peritectic - An isothermal reversible reaction in which a liquid phase reacts with a solid phase to produce another solid phase.

Permalloy - Nickel alloys containing about 20 to 60% Fe, used for their high magnetic permeability and electrical resistivity.

Permanent Set - Non-elastic or plastic, deformation of metal under stress, after passing the elastic limit.

Phase - A physically homogeneous and distincy portion of a material system.

Phase Diagram - Synonymous with constitutional diagram.

Phosphor Bronze Strip - A copper-base alloy containing up to 10% tin, which has been deoxidized with phosphorus in varying amounts of less than 1%. Temper is imparted by cold rolling, resulting in greater tensile strength and hardness than in most copper-base alloys or either of its alloying elements copper or tin. The various tempers from One Number Hard to Ten Numbers Hard are classified in hardness by the number of B&S Gages reduction in dimension from the previous soft or as-annealed state. Phosphor Bronze is not heat treatable for purposes of hardness development. It does not withstand elevated temperatures very well and should not be used in service above 225 (degrees) F. even after stress relieving treatment at 325 (degrees) to 350 (degrees) F. It has excellent electrical properties, corrosion resistant comparable to copper; great toughness and resistance to fatigue. Rated good for soft soldering, silver alloy brazing, oxyacetylene, carbon arc and resistance welding.

Photomicrograph - A photographic reproduction of any object magnified more than ten diameters. The term micrograph may be used.

Physical Properties - Properties other than mechanical properties, that pertain to the physical nature of a material; e.g., density, electrical conductivity, thermal expansion, reflectivity, magnetic susceptibility, etc.

Physical Properties - The properties, other than mechanical properties, that pertain to the physics of a material; for example, density, electrical conductivity, heat conductivity, thermal expansion.

Physical Properties - Those properties familiarly discussed in physics, exclusive of those described under mechanical properties; for example, density, electrical conductivity, co-efficient of thermal expansion. This term often has been used to describe mechanical properties, but this usage is not recommended.

Pickling - Removing surface oxides from metals by chemical or electrochemical reaction.

Pickling - The process of chemically removing oxides and scale from the surface of a metal by the action of water solutions of inorganic acids.

Pickling Patch - A defect in tin plate, galvanized or terne plated steel due to faulty pickling, leaving areas from which the oxide has not been completely removed.

Pig Iron - Iron produced by reduction of iron ore in a blast furnace. Pig iron contains approximately 92% iron and about 3.5% carbon. Balance largely silicone and manganese with small percentages of phosphorus, sulphur, and other impurities.

Pig Iron - (1) High-carbon iron made by reduction of iron ore in the blast furnace. (2) Cast Iron in the form of pigs.

Pin Expansion Test - A test for determining the ability of tubes to be expanded or for revealing the presence of cracks or other longitudinal weaknesses, made by forcing a tapered pin into the open end of a tube.

Pinchers - Long fern like creases usually diagonal to the direction of rolling.

Pinholes - Microscopic imperfection of the coatings, that is, microscopic bare spots, also microscopic holes penetrating through a layer or thickness of light gage metal.

Pipe - (1) The central cavity formed by contraction in metal, especially ingots, during solidification. (2) The defect in wrought or cast products resulting from such a cavity. (3) An extrusion defect due to the oxidized surface of the billet flowing toward the center of the rod at the back end. (4) A tubular metal product, cast or wrought.

Pipe (defect) - Contraction cavity, essentially cone-like in shape, which occurs in the approximate center, at the top and reaching down into a casting; caused by the shrinkage of cast metal.

Pit (defect) - A sharp depresssion in the surface of the metal.

Pitting - Forming small sharp cavities in a metal surface by nonuniform electro-deposition or by corrosion.

Planimetric Method - A method of measuring grain size, in which the grains within a definite area are counted.

Planishing - Producing a smooth surface finish on metal by rapid succession of blows delivered by highly polished dies or by a hammer designed for the purpose, or by rolling in a planishing mill.

Plastic Deformation - Deformation that remains, or will remain, permanent after release of the stress that caused it.

Plastic Deformation - Permanent distortion of a material under the action of applied stresses.

Plasticity - The ability of a metal to be deformed extensively without rupture.

Plasticity - The capacity of a metal to deform non-elastically without rupturing.

Plate - A flat-rolled metal product of some minimum thickness and width argitrarily dependent on the type of metal.

Plate Martensite - Martensite formed, partly in steels containing more than about 0.5% C and solely in steels containing more than about 1.0% C, as lenticular-shape plates on irrational habit planes that are near (225)A, or {259}A in very-high-carbon steels

Plating - A thin coating of metal laid on another metal.

Polished Surface - The finish obtained by buffing with rouge or similar fine abrasive, resulting in a high gloss or polish.

Polishing - Producing a specularly reflecting surface.

Polycrystalline - Comprising an aggregate of more than one crystal, and usually a large number of crystals.

Polymorphism - The property whereby certain substances may exist in more than one crystalline form, the particular form depending on the conditions of crystallization - e.g., temperature and pressure. Among elements, this phenomenon is also called allotropy.

Postheating - Heating weldments immediately after welding, for tempering, for stress relieving, or for providing a controlled rate of cooling to prevent formation of a hard or brittle structure.

Pot Annealing - Is the same as box annealing.

Pouring - The transfer of molten metal from the ladle into ingot molds or other types of molds; for example, in castings.

Powder Metallurgy - The art of producing metal powders and of utilizing metal powders for the production of massive materials and shaped objects.

Precipitation Hardening - Hardening caused by the precipitation of a constituent form a supersaturated solid solution.

Precipitation Hardening - A process of hardening an alloy in which a constituent precipitates from a supersaturated solid solution.

Precipitation Heat Treatment - Nonfer met. Any of the various aging treatments conducted at elevated temperatures to improve certain of the mechanical properties through precipitation from solid solution.

Preferred Orientation - A condition of a polycrystalline aggregate in which the crystal orientations are not random.

Preheating - Heating before some further thermal or mechanical treatment. For tool steel, heating to an intermediate temperature immediately before austenitizing. For some nonferrous alloys, heating to a high temperature for a long time, in order to homogenize the structure before working.

Preheating - (1) A general term used to describe heating applied as a preliminary to some further thermal or mechanical treatment. (2) A term applied specifically to tool steel to describe a process in which the steel is heated slowly and uniformly to a temperature below the hardening temperature and is then transferred to a furnace in which the temperature is substantially above the preheating temperature. (3) Nonfer. met.-Heating a metal to a relatively high temperature for a relatively long time in order to change the structure before working. Ingots are homogenized by preheating.

Press Forging - Forging metal, usually hot, between dies in a press.

Primary Crystal - The first type of crystal that separates from a melt during solidifacation.

Primes - Metal products, principally sheet and plate, of the highest quality and free from visible defects.

Primes - Metal products, such as sheet and plate, of the highest quality and free from visible surface defects.

Process Annealing - In the sheet and wire industries, heating a ferrous alloy to a temperature close to, but below, the lower limit of the transformation range and then cooling, in order to soften the alloy for futher cold working.

Process Annealing - In the sheet and wire industries, a process by whcih a ferrous alloy is heated to a temperature close to, but below, the lower limit of the transformation range and is subsequently cooled. This process is applied in order to soften the alloy for further cold working.

Proeutectoid (phase) - Particles of a phase that precipitate during cooling after austenitizing but before the eutectoid transformation takes place.

Propertional Limit - The greatest stress that the material is capable of sustaining without a deviation from the law of proportionally of stress to strain (Hooke's Law).

Propertional Limit - The maximum stress at which strain remains directly propertional to stress.

Pulse-Echo Method - A nondestructive test in which pulses of energy are directed onto a part, and the time for the echo to return from one or more reflecting surfaces is measured.

Punch - The movable part that forces the metal into the die in equipment for sheet drawing, blanking, coining, embossing and the like.

Punching - Shearing holes in sheet metal with punch and die.

Pyrometer - An instrument of any of various types used for measuring temperatures.