S-Relay - A device used to direct the oil flow to the main piston which in turn causes it to move allowing the opening and closing of the steam controlling valves on a low pressure generator.

S/T - Side trimmer.

Sacrificial Barrier - A coating, such as zinc, which "sacrifices" itself to the corrosive elements of the atmosphere to protect the steel from corrosion.

SAE - Society of Automotive Engineers; develops SAE Ferrous Materials Standards Manual.

SAE Specifications - A set of materials specification issued by the Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.

SAW - Submerged arc weld a method of producing very large pipe

Safeties - Valves that open to relieve excessive pressure.

Saddle - Line equipment used to transfer coils up, down, on, or off the reels. The saddle is sometimes referred to as a ""traverse car""."

Safety Cup 1. A device - 1) A device that prevents the oil reservoir from draining if the water seal on the separator is lost. 2) Heavy steel mug-shaped device placed on the welder shear cylinder when the welder carriage is in the out position. The cup keeps the welder shear frame from operating, enabling the safe removal of scrap from the welder tray.

Safety Horn - A horn used to alert the crew that the line or parts of the line is about to be jogged.

Sag - A decrease in metal section in casting due to sagging of the cope or core.

Salamander - 1) A heating device, usually of drum shape, in which fuel is burned in the open air by natural draft, 2) iron which has collected in the bottom of a blast furnace during a blow.

Salt Bath - A method of heating steel using a bath of molten salts. Salt baths give uniform heating and prevent oxidation, they are used for hardening, tempering or quenching. The type of salt used depends on the temperature rang required. For hardening,sodium cyanide,sodium carbonate and sodium chloride are in common use.

Salt Spray Test - A test to determine the life of coated steel when exposed to corrosive saltwater solution (generally 5% NaCl).

Salvage - Smaller coils sold at above the scrap price.

Salvage Coil - A coil with a weight less than 5000 lbs. that does not meet customer specifications. These coils do not get an IPM number.

Sample - A part , portion or piece taken for purposes of inspection or test as representative of the whole

Sand - In metalcasting, a loose, granular material high in SiO2, resulting from the disintegration of rock. The name sand refers to the size of grain and not to mineral composition. Diameter of the individual grains can vary from approximately 6 to 270 mesh. Most foundry sands are mad up principally of the mineral quartz (silica). Reason for this is that sand is plentiful, refractory, and cheap; miscellaneous sands include zircon, olivine, chromite, CaCO3, black sand (lava grains), titanium minerals and others.

Sand Blasting - The process of cleaning forgings by propelling sand against them at high velocity. See also Blast Cleaning.

Sand Casting - Metal castings produced in sand molds.

Sand Control - Procedure whereby various properties of foundry sand, such as fineness, permeability, green strength, moisture content, etc., are adjusted to obtain castings free from blows, scabs, veins, and similar defects.

Sand Mulling - A method of evenly distributing the bond around the sand grain by a rubbing action.

Sand Plow - A bladed device used to divert sand from a belt conveyor into a sand hopper.

Sand Porosity - Volume of the pore spaces or folds in a sand. (Not synonymous with permeability).

Sand Reclamation - Processing of used foundry sand grains by thermal, attraction or hydraulic methods so that it may be used in place of new sand without substantially changing current foundry sand practice.

Sand Tempering - Dampening and cutting over or otherwise mixing sand to produce uniform distribution of moisture, and allowing time for migration of water molecules.

Sand Wall - Temporary independent wall separated from a slag pocket wall; facilitates slag removal and protects permanent wall.

Sanding Stick - A wooden stick that has sandpaper on one end that is used to prevent defects on the rolls from being transferred onto the strip.

Sanding Stone - Equipment used to remove grit from rolls, tin or zinc build-up from knives, and to clean the burr mashers.

Saw-Plate Bar - See Bar, Saw-Plate.

Sb - Chemical symbol for Antimony

Scab - An imperfection consisting of a thin, flat piece of metal attached to the surface of a sand casting or ingot. A scab usually is separared from the casting proper by a thin layer of sand or refractory and is attached to the casting along one edge. An erosion scab is similar in appearance to a cut or wash.

Scale - The oxidised surface of steel produced during hot working, as in rolling, and exposure to air or steam at elevated tenmperature.

Scale Line - A furrow in the rolling direction of the strip.

Scale Pits - Pits used in hot roll mills; scale loosened from hot slabs drops into the pits and settles on the bottom.

Scale Resistance - Resistance to corrosion by air at elevated temperatures. In stainless steels, chromium is the most important element for increasing the scaling resistance particulary at temperatures above 1000F

Scaling (Scale) - Surface oxidation, partially adherent layers of corrosion products, left on metals by heating or casting in air or in other oxidizing atmospheres.

Scanner - 1) An electronic eye that is sensitive to certain areas of the light spectrum used to detect flame in the boiler. 2) Refers to hardware used to scan the bar coded labels containing the IPM no. of the coil and the location for inventory identification. Interfaces directly to the DEC computer through the Radiofrequency (RF) Backbone.

Scanner Fan - Fan which provides ambient air for the purpose of keeping the flame scanners cool.

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) - An instrument used for obtaining microstructure images using an electron beam. The micrographs obtained give depth perception of the metal being observed.

Scarfing - Cutting surface areas of metal objects, ordinarily by using a gas torch. The operation permits surface defects to be cut from ingots, billets, or the edges of plate that is to be beveled for butt welding.

Scavenging Rate - Establishes the purity of the hydrogen gas in the generator.

SCBA - See Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus.

Schedule - A list of product to be processed on a unit.

Schedule Book - A group of schedules or order mattes that contain customer specifications for processing.

Scleroscope Hardness (Test) - A method for measuring the hardness of metals; a diamond-pointed hammer drops from a fixed distance through a tube onto the smoothed metal surface and the rebound measured. The scleroscope hardness value is empirically taken from the rebound distance, with a specified high-carbon steel as 100.

Scotch Brite - Mechanical finish produced by applying scotch brite (registered trademark of 3M co.) to the surface of the metal to give a fine scratch pattern appearance. It is also useful I reducing tool wear (i.e. removal of abrasive surface osides

Scrap (Ferrous) - "Ferrous (iron-containing) material that generally is remelted and recast into new steel. Integrated steel mills use scrap for up to 25% of their basic oxygen furnace charge; 100% of the mini-mills' raw material for their electric furnaces generally is scrap. HOME SCRAP Waste steel that is generated from within the steel mill, through edge trimming and rejects. It normally is sent directly back to the furnace. PROMPT (INDUSTRIAL) SCRAP Excess steel that is trimmed by the auto and appliance stampers and auctioned to scrap buyers as factory bundles. This is a high-quality scrap as the result of its low-residual content and consistent chemistry. OBSOLETE SCRAP Iron-bearing trash. Automobile hulks, worn-out refrigerators and useless storage tanks, for example, can be recovered from the junkyard and remelted. The residual impurity of such scrap normally relegates obsolete scrap to the mini-mills (see No. 1 Heavy Melt). "

Scrap (Metal) - Metal to be remelted; includes scrapped machinery fabricated items such as rail or structural steel and rejected castings.

Scrap Baller - Device on the Delivery End of a slitter which collects the sidetrimmed edges of the coils and winds them into a ball.

Scrap Deflector - A device used to direct the edge of the strip that was cut away by the slitter knives. This waste is now considered to be scrap and is directed to the scrap baller by the deflector.

Scrap Sheet - The portions of the coil that are discarded because they are out of spec.

Scrap Substitute - Raw material that can be charged in place of scrap in electric arc furnaces and basic oxygen furnaces. Scrap substitutes include, among others, DRI, HBI, iron carbide, and pig iron.

Scratch, Drawn-In - A scratch occurring during the fabricating process and subsequently drawn over making it relatively smooth to the touch.

Scratch, Friction - A scratch caused by relative motion between two contacting surfaces.

Scratch, Handling - A more severe form of rub mark. See Mark, Rub.

Scratch, Machine - An indentation which is straight, is in the rolling direction an is caused by contact with a sharp projection on equipment.

Scratch, Oscillation - Minor indentations at an angle to the rolling direction that result from coil oscillation during unwinding or rewinding.

Scratch, Oven - A scratch which is caused by moving contact of coating against a non-moving object in an oven.

Scratch, Rolled-In - A scratch which is subsequently rolled. It will then appear as a grayish white ladder (distinct transverse lines within the longitudinal indentation).

Scratch, Tension - A short longitudinal indentation parallel to the rolling direction.

Scratch - (1) For rolled products, a sharp indentation in the surface usually caused by a machine or during handling. (2) For extrusions, a synonym for handling mark. See Mark, Handling.

Scratch or Gouge - This type of defect can be recognized, in most cases, as to its source. If the scratch or gouge occurs in the hot strip mill there will be an oxide which has formed at the base of it. Scratches or gouges occurring at the finishing end can be recognized by the bright appearance at the base of the defect which is indicative of oxide removal after the steel has cooled.

Scratches - 1) A defect on a strip where small portions of tin coating have been removed. 2) Defect that manifests itself in many forms generally due to scoring of the strip surface by an outside source.

Screen (Sand) - A sieve or riddle with openings of definite size used to separate one gain size from another or to remove lumps from sand.

Screen Analysis (Sieve Analysis) - Distribution of particle size sand expressed in terms of the percentage of weight retained on each of a series of standard screens decreasing in mesh size and the percentage passed by the screen of finest mesh.

Screen Box - An in-line water filter for water delivered from the river to the powerhouse. The screen box contains a screen filter that catches particulates and prevents them from entering the water system.

Screen Box Chart - A chart in the old pump room that gives the Pump Tender the pressure on the screen box and whether it is dirty or not.

Screen Decks - A system that provides a method to screen the fines from the sinter product. The screen decks are slotted or blanked.

Screen Tubes - Tubes that run from the front drum to a header on the east wall at the third floor level. While no steam is generated, water circulates rapidly through these tubes and their purpose is to block or screen the boiler fly ash and prevent its carryover into the superheater elements and generators. This area receives heavy slagging during boiler operation and must be washed daily.

Screwdown Drives - Drives atop each finishing mill that provide the initial downward force on the top back-up roll, through the A.G.C. cylinder. Each mill has two drives (operator side and drive side).

Scrubbers - See Wet Scrubbers

Scrubbers - The scrubber combines the use of wringers and sprays to wash off any remaining foreign matter and cleaning compound adhering to the strip. Cold water is mainly used in the scrubbers.

Se - Chemical symbol for Selenium.

Sea - Special end area inspection to check for defects at eithre of a steel tube which is also being inspected electronic (EMI misses the ends.)

Seal Oil - Pressurized oil that flows along the shaft through the clearance space between the gland rings and the shaft. As long as the oil pressure exceeds the gas pressure in the machine, the oil flow will prevent hydrogen gas from escaping. Seal oil systems are on #8 and #9 Generators.

Seal Tank - A tank that allows a free flow of effluent water the scrubber to the recycle/effluent tank and maintains a water seal on the scrubber to prevent the sulfur gases from escaping into the surrounding atmosphere.

Seal Water - Water that is used to quench excess steam that escapes from the seal areas.

Sealed Source - Any radioactive material that is encased in and is to be used in a container in a manner intended to prevent leakage of the radioactive material.

Seam (A defect.) - On the surface of metal a crack that has been closed but not welded; usually produced by some defect either in casting or in working, such as blowholes that have become oxidized or folds and laps that have been formed during working. Similar to cold shut and laminations.

Seamless - A hollow product which does not contain any line junctures resulting from method of manufacture.

Seamless Pipe - Pipe made from a solid billet, which is heated, then rotated under extreme pressure. This rotational pressure creates an opening in the center of the billet, which is then shaped by a mandrel to form pipe.

Seam, Extrusion - The junction line of metal that has passed through a bridge or porthole hollow die, separated and rejoined at the weld point. Seams are present in all such extruded hollows in many cases are not readily visible. See Seamless and Weld, Incomplete.

Secondary Coils - Coils not sold as prime.

Secondary Metal - Metal recovered from scrap by remelting and refining.

Secondary Steel - Steel that does not meet the original customer's specifications because of a defect in its chemistry, gauge or surface quality. Mills must search to find another customer (that can accept the lower quality) to take the off-spec steel at a discount. While secondary will not affect the reported yield, margins will suffer.

Seconds - The designation given to sheet or strip that has imperfections in moderate degree or extent, which may be classified in two general groups -- imperfections in the base material, or other manufacturing defects. This term not used in connection with non-ferrous alloys.

Section Number - The number assigned to an extruded or drawn profile (shape) for indentation and cataloging purposes, usually the same number assigned for the same purpose to the die from which the profile (shape) is made.

Seediness - Coating defects consisting of the randomly spaced undissolved particles, usually resin particles, which are immersed in the coating. They are raised up in the coating and appear somewhat like fine sand sprinkled throughout the film

Segment - A part of the mandrel that moves in and out to expand to hold a coil or collapse to release a coil.

Segment Steel - Used for laminated piston rings. Carbon content about .60%. Hardened and blue tempered with round edges. Hardness usually Rockwells 30 N 68 to 71, widths vary from .058 to .163 and thicknesses are .020, .024 and .030.

Seienium - A metalloid melting 220 B0C (428 B0F) added to stainless steel to improve machinability.

Selector Valve - Valves on some filter assemblies that allow switching from one filter to the other.

Selenium - An element that closely resembles sulphur in its properities. The main use in steel is as a freecutting additive but due to high cost its is limited to stainless steel. One of the benefits being the ability to obtain a very good surface finish on machined components.

Semi-finished Steel - "Steel shapes-for example, blooms, billets or slabs-that later are rolled into finished products such as beams, bars or sheet. Sendzimir Mill (Z-mill) WHAT Compact mill used for rolling cold coils of stainless steel in order to make the steel thinner, smoother, and stronger. WHY To control the thickness of steel better at lower capital cost, and to roll thinner sheets and strips. HOW Stainless steel sheet or strip passes between a matching pair of small work rolls with extremely smooth surfaces, heavily reinforced by clusters of back-up rolls. The rolls reduce the steel to the desired thickness. Service Center A catchall name for an operation that buys steel, often processes it in some way and then sells it in a slightly different form. A service center is distinguished from an end-user by the fact that, unlike an end-user, a service center sells steel, not a fabricated product. Service centers are manufacturers to the extent that they add labor to steel by providing a service. "

Separate - A term used to describe the process of stopping the entry end of the line, while the delivery end continues to run.

Separator - Oil filtering equipment that separates the water and dirt from the oil.

Separator Rubs - Mechanical scratches caused by separator arms

Servo - An electronically monitored hydraulic flow control valve used to drive loads.

Setup - Line preparation to slit new width size for customer specification. The distance between the slitter heads must be changed and the knives must be physically moved on the slitter shaft.

SFSA - Steel Founders' Society

SG Iron - An abbreviation for Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron. As the name implies, graphite is present in spheroidal form instead of flakes and compared with Grey Cast Iron it has higher mechanical strength, ductility and increased shock resistance.

Shakeout - 1) The operation of removing castings from the mold 2) a mechanical unit for separating the molding materials from the solidified metal casting.

Shaker - A device employed at the coal hopper to vibrate the rail cars and make the coal drop from the hoppers.

Shank - The handle attached to a ladle.

Shape - This term is no longer recommended. The term Profile is preferred. See Profile.

Shape Control - Ability to produce material to a given geometric flatness standard. (See Flatness)

Shape Correcting - Rolling, heating and quenching steel sheets often affect the dimensions of the steel. Levelers, temper mills and edge trimmers rework the processed steel to match customer specifications.

Shape Defect - Geometric non-uniformity of a strip, such as bent strip, coil set, center buckle, wavy edge, etc.

Shaw (Osborn-Shaw) Process - A precision casting technique in ceramic molds which do not require wax or plastic investment.

Shear Bands (deformation) - Bands in which deformation has been concentrated inhomogeneously in sheets that extend across regional groups of grains. Usually only one system is present in each regional group of grains, different systems being present in adhoining groups. The bands are noncrystallographic and form on planes of maximum shear stress (55(degrees) to the compression direction). They carry most of the deformation at large strains. Compare microbands.

Shear Burr - A condition caused by a worn or out-of-adjustment shear knife. It is indicated by a small raised area at the end of the strip.

Shear Carriage - Bottom section of the shear that raises when a cut is made and catches the pieces of scrap. Located at the welder.

Shear Modulus (G) - In a torsion test, the ratio of the unit shear stress to the displacement caused by it per unit length in the elastic range. Units are Pa or psi.

Shear Strain - Elastic displacement produced by pure shear loading.

Shear Stress - Load per unit area parallel to the plane of contact.

Shearing - A process of mechanically cutting metal bars to the proper stock length necessary for forging and trimming dies.

Shearing Test - The test applied to metal to determine the stress required to fracture it across its section.

Sheet - Wide, flat-rolled steel. It is generally accepted that steel less than 3 mm thick is sheet and more than 3 mm (1/8 inch) thick is plate (See Plate).

Sheet Mill - The facility which produces hot dipped galvanized products, including galvanized, galvannealed and Galfan.

Sheet Mill Product - A product produced at the Sheet Mill.

Sheet Products - 1) Hot Roll (01) Uncoated, heavy gauge, fully processed in Strip Steel, never cold reduced at Tandem Mill. 2) Cold Roll (02) Uncoated, heavy gauge, primarily processed in Strip Steel, although some goes to the Tin Mill, always cold reduced at Tandem Mill. 3) Galvanized (05,06) "Bath" coated with zinc, heavy gauge, primarily processed thru Strip Steel & Sheet Mill, majority is cold reduced at Tandem Mill. 4) Weirzin (07) electrogalvanized Zinc coated, normally lighter gauge than galvanized, processed through Strip Steel & Tin Mill, mostly single reduced. (Tandem)

Sheet Steel - Thin, flat-rolled steel. Coiled sheet steel accounts for nearly one-half of all steel shipped domestically and is created in a hot-strip mill by rolling a cast slab flat while maintaining the side dimensions. The malleable steel lengthens to several hundred feet as it is squeezed by the rolling mill. The most common differences among steel bars, strip, plate, and sheet are merely their physical dimensions of width and gauge (thickness).

Sheet, Alclad - Composite sheet comprised of an aluminum alloy core having on both surfaces (if one side only, Alclad One Side Sheet) a metallurgically bonded aluminum or aluminum alloy coating that is anodic or the core, thus electrolytically protecting the core against corrosion.

Sheet, Anodizing - Sheet with metallurgical characteristics and surface quality suitable for the development of protective and decorative films by anodic oxidation processes.

Sheet, Clad - Composite sheet having on both surfaces (if on one side only, Clad One Side Sheet) a metallurgically bonded metal coating, the composition of which may or may not be the same as that of the core.

Sheet, Coiled Cut to Length - Sheet cut to specified length from coils and which has a lesser degree of flatness than flat sheet

Sheet, Coiled - Sheet in coils with slit edges.

Sheet, Flat Circles - Circles cut from flat sheet

Sheet, Flat - Sheet with sheared, slit or sawed edges, which has been flattened or leveled.

Sheet, Mill finish (MF) - Sheet having a non-uniform finish that may vary from sheet to sheet and within a sheet, and may not be entirely free from stains or oil.

Sheet, One Side Bright Mill Finish (1SBMF) - Sheet having a moderate degree of brightness on one side and a mill finish on the other

Sheet, Painted - Sheet, one or both sides of which has a factory-applied paint coating of controlled thickness.

Sheet, Standard One Side Bright Finish (S1SBF) - Sheet having a uniform bright finish on one side and a mill finish on the other

Sheet - A rolled product that is rectangular in cross section with thickness less than 0.250 inch but not less than 0.006 inch and with slit, sheared or sawed edges.

Shell Molding - A process for forming a mold from resin-bonded sand mixtures brought in contact with pre-heated (300-500 B0F) metal patterns, resulting in a firm shell with a cavity corresponding to the outline of the pattern.

Shelving - A coating defect consisting of an intercoat adhesion failure where a topcoat does not adhere to the coating below.

Sherardizing - A process developed in Britainin 1904 by sherard Cowper-coles. It is a method of producing a protective zinc coating on iron and steel products.

Shewed Tolerances - Tolerances which are non-symmetrically distributed about the design parameter.

Shift - A casting defect caused by mismatch of cope and drag or of cores and mold.

Shim - A thin flat hard metal strip produced to close tolerances; used primarily for tool, die and machine alignment purposes. In steel there are four general types: (1) Low Carbon Rockwell B 80/100; (2) Hard Rolled High Carbon Rockwell C 28/33. (3) Hardened and Tempered Spring Steel Rockwell C 44/51; (4) Austenitic Stainless Steel Rockwell C 35/45. Brass shim of commercial quality is also used and most generally specified is 2 Nos. Hard but may be 4 Nos. Hard.

Shipout - A coil which has been fully processed to customer specifications.

Shoe - A holder used as a support for the stationary portions of forging and trimming.

Shore Scleroscope - An instrument that measures the hardness of a sample in arbitrary terms of elasticity. A diamond tipped hammer is allowed to fall freely down a graduated glass tube on to the sampel under test. The hardness is measured by the height of the rebound. In another for the rebounding hammer actuates the pointer of a scale so that the height of the rebound is recorded.

Short Belt - The belt that delivers coal from the seventh floor hopper to the long belt.

Short Terne - A term applying to terne coated (Lead and Tin) sheets with reference to Base Box sizes (14 x 20) Refer to terne plate.

Short Transverse Direction - For plate, sheet and forging, the direction through the thickness perpendicular to both longitudinal and long transverse directions.

Shortness - A form of brittleness in metal. It is designed as cold, hot, and red, to indicate the temperature range in which the brittleness occurs.

Shortness (Hot) - Brittleness in a metal at an elevated temperature.

Shot Blast - Shot blasting consists of attacking the surface of a material with one of many types of shots. Normally this is done to remove something on the surface such as scale, but it is also done sometimes to impart a particular surface to the object being shot blasted, such as the rolls used to make a 2D finish. The shot can be sand, small steel balls of various diameters, granules of silicon carbide,etc. The device that throws the shot is ietheeer a large air gun or spinning paddles which hurl the shot off their blades.

Shot Blast Roll Finish - The surface finish (with a grit microfinish) on the rolls in the last stand of tandem mill or temper mill; determines the surface finish of the product where a grit finish produced to a specified micro-inch reading is desired.

Shot Blasting - A process of cleaning forgings by propelling metal shot at high velocity by air pressure or centrifugal force at the surface of the forgings. See also Blast Cleaning.

Shotbalsting (Shot Peening) - Casting cleaning process employing a metal abrasive (grit or shot) propelled by centrifugal or air force.

Shredded Scrap - Fist-sized, homogenous pieces of old automobile hulks. After cars are sent through a shredder, the recyclable steel is separated by magnets. Mini-mills consume shredded scrap in their electric arc furnace operations.

Shrink - The difference in volume between liquid metal and solid metal or the void (shrink hole) left in a casting because of it.

Shrinkage - 1) Liquid, contraction in volume as metal cools to solidification, 2) solidification, contraction in volume when the metal passes from the liquid to the sold at the freezing point (may expend over a range), 3) solid, the contraction on cooling from freezing point to normal temperature, 4) the decrease in dimension in clays occurring when drying at 100 B0C (212 B0F) and even more so on firing, 5) reduction in dimension of refractory material during heating.

Shrinkage - The contraction of metal during cooing after forging. Die impressions are made oversize according to precise shringage scales to allow forgings to shrink to design dimensions and tolerances.

Shrinkage Cracks - Cracks that form in metal as result of the pulling apart of grains by contraction before complete solidification.

Shrinkage, Patternmakers - A linear scale or ruler, typically in inches or millimeters which has been lengthened by the percentage of linear shrinkage by which liquid metal contracts during solidification and cooling.

Shrink Hole - A hole or cavity in a casting resulting from shrinkage and insufficient feed metal, and formed during solidification.

Shut-off Valve - Any valve used to isolate pressure in a system.

Shutdown - When production is stopped for repairs, or scheduled down turns.

Side Set - A difference in thickness between the two edges of plate, sheet or foil.

Side Trim - A process whereby a Tin Mill Product edge is trimmed to produce a relatively smooth finished edge.

Side-arm Filter - See Polishing Filters.

Sidewall - The sides of a coil.

Sight Block - A 2" x 2" steel block located on the inside of the #1 feeder housing used for lining up the front end of a coil with the pulling rolls before loading it into the feeder.

Sight Glass - A measuring device where flow, oil level, or water can be monitored visually.

Silica - Silicon dioxide, the prime ingredient of sand and acid refractories.

Silica Brick - Refractory material of ganister, bonded with hydrated lime, and fired at high temperature.

Silica Gel - A colloidal form of silica used as a drying agent.

Silica Sand - Sand with a minimum silica content of 95% used for forming casting molds.

Silicon - Chemical symbol Si. Element No. 14 of the periodic system; atomic weight 28.06. Extremely common element, the major component of all rodks and sands; its chemical reactions, however, are those of a metalloid. Used in metallurgy as a deoxidizing scavenger. Silicon is present, to some extent, in all steels, and is deliberately added to the extent of approximately 4% for electric sheets, extensively used in alternating current magnetic circuits. Silicon cannot be electrodeposited.

Silicon Electrical Steel - "A type of specialty steel created by introducing silicon during the steelmaking process. Electrical steel exhibits certain magnetic properties, which make it optimum for use in transformers, power generators and electric motors. GRAIN-ORIENTED The metal's grain runs parallel within the steel, permitting easy magnetization along the length of the steel. Although grain-oriented steel may be twice as expensive to produce, its magnetic directional characteristics enable power transformers, made from this metal, to absorb less energy during operation. NON-GRAIN-ORIENTED Because there is no preferential direction for magnetization, non-grain-oriented steel is best used in rotating apparatus such as electric motors. "

Silicon Steel - Steel usually made in the basic open-hearth or electric furnace, with about 0.50-5.% silicon, other elements being usually dept as low as possible. Because of high electrical resistance and low hysterisis loss, silicon sheet and strip are standard in electric magnet manufacture.

Simultaneous Engineering - Refers to the process where user/designer and producer interact to reduce lead time and improve the efficiency of a part. This process is faster and more efficient than the traditional sequential process of design and manufacture.

Single Reduced - Refers to temper rolling in the tin mill. No gauge reduction occurs here. Steel sheet that is rolled in multiple-strand reduction mills while cold, then annealed and temper rolled to produce thin gauges for can making. Besides reducing gauge and permitting fabrication of lighter weight cans, cold rolling also improves the steel's surface and metallurgical properties.

Single Spot Test - A test of galvanized (or any other metallic) coating weights administered by sampling the coated steel across the width at two inches from each edge and dead center. See Triple Spot Test.

Sinker Steel - Used for making sinkers in hosiery making machinery. Supplied both hardened and tempered and cold rolled and annealed. Usually extra precision rolled and extra flat. Carbon content about 1.25.

Sinkhead or Hot Top - A reservoir insulated to retain heat and to hod excess molten metal on top of an ingot mold, in order to feed the shrinkage of the ingot. Also called shrink head or feeder head.

Sinter - Baked particles that stick together in roughly one-inch chunks, normally used for iron ore dust collected from the blast furnaces.

Sintering - A process that combines iron-bearing particles, once recovered from environmental control filters, into small pellets. Previously, these materials were too fine to withstand the air currents of the smelting process and were thrown away. The iron is now conserved because the chunks can be charged into the blast furnace (see Agglomerating Processes).

Sintering Point - That temperature at which the molding material begins to adhere to the casting, or in a test when the sand coheres to a platinum ribbon under controlled conditions. Also, the temperature at which sand grains begin to adhere to one another.

Siphon Line - A line that directs steam flow past an orifice to create a suction on the intake line of a pump to get a prime.

Size/Sizes - A slang term used when obtaining the order of coils to be processed. The "size" contains index, customer name, coil width, baseweight, and number of coils in the order.

Sizing - A process employed to control precisely a diameter of rings or tubular components.

Skelp - Steel that is the entry material to a pipe mill. It resembles hot-rolled strip, but its properties allow for the severe forming and welding operations required for pipe production.

Skid Marks - Visibly colder "stripes" on slabs caused by contact with water-cooled skids in a pusher-type reheat furnace.

Skim Core (Skimmer) - "A flat core or tile placed in a mold to skim a flowing stream of metal. Commonly used in pouring basins, it hold back slag and dirt while clean metal passes underneath to the downsprue. See Core Strainer"

Skim Gate - A gating arrangement which changes the direction of flow of molten metal and prevents the passage of slag and other undesirable materials into the mold cavity.

Skimming - Removing or hold back dirt or slag from the surface of the molten metal before or during pouring.

Skin Passed - Steel which has been processed through the Skin Mill (Temper Mill).

Skin Roll - Product to be sent to the Skin Mill for its next operation.

Skin-Drying - Drying the surface of the mold by direct application of heat.

Skip - An area of uncoated sheet which is frequently caused by equipment malfunciton.

SLA - Stereolithography Apparatus

Slab - The most common type of semi-finished steel. Traditional slabs measure 10 inches thick and 30-85 inches wide (and average about 20 feet long), while the output of the recently developed "thin slab" casters is approximately two inches thick. Subsequent to casting, slabs are sent to the hot-strip mill to be rolled into coiled sheet and plate products.

Slab Caster - A continuous caster used to form slabs.

Slab Core - Flat, plain core.

Slab Haulers - Huge hydraulic lift trucks that carry up to six slabs at a time. They move slabs between the caster, open heath area, and the hot strip mill.

Slack - Excess strip in the line, without tension, used to allow movement of the strip.

Slag - The impurities in a molten pool of iron. Flux such as limestone may be added to foster the congregation of undesired elements into a slag. Because slag is lighter than iron, it will float on top of the pool, where it can be skimmed.

Slag Inclusion - Nonmetallic solids entrapped in solid metal.

Slag Trap - An enlargement, dam, or extrusion in the gating or runners system in a mold for the purpose of preventing molten slag particles from entering the mold cavity.

Slave Valve - A spool type hydraulic valve that uses pressure from a pilot valve to move the position of its spool.

Slicking (Sleeking) - Smoothing the surface of molds.

Slide Gate - A valve which employs a plate that slides in and out of the valve body as a means of stopping flow.

Slinging - A coating defect consisting of random spots of coating deposited on coated sheets or adjacent machinery that appear raised above the surrounding substrate. Slinging and misting are synonymous, with misting being fine droplets.

Slip Casting - In ceramics, a pouring slip, a water suspension of finely ground clay, into a plaster of paris mold. After it hardens it is dried and fired.

Slippage Scratch - See Scratch, Tension.

Slit - To slit steel is simply to cut it. The most common slitter available is a pair of scissors. The slitters used in the mill have circular blades that resemble washers. These rotate as the steel passed through them. The slitters hace a payoff reel and a take-up reel which pass the steel through the slitter knives. Between these two reel are two shafts,one above the steel and one below the steel. The round slitter knives are placed on the shafts and adjusted so that they cut off the edges of the steel to produce a good edge and/or cut the steel into narrow strips of the width the customer wants.

Slit Edge - The relatively smooth edge produced from side trimming or slitting. See Mill Edge.

Slitter - 1) Area on the Pickler where the strip is sidetrimmed (slit) to its proper width. 2) Sidetrims the edges of the strip to certain width in the customer's specifications, or the vertical cutting of coil material to form narrow strip product.

Slitter Hair - See Hair, Slitter.

Slitter Heads - Mechanical housings that hold internal and external parts of the slitter knives.

Slitting - Cutting a sheet of steel into narrower strips to match customer needs. Because steel mills have limited flexibility as to the widths of the sheet that they produce, service centers normally will cut the sheet for the customer.

Slitting Stock - Slitting stock is produced with the knowledge that the product will be further processed by mill customer. Mill produces the final gauge but not the final width. The customer will do additional slitting/shearing.

Slivers - Slivers are due to defective teeming of the molten metal and to a tearing of corners of the steel in blooming, roughing, or finishing. Tearing is attributed to many things, such as overoxidation in the open hearth, or burning during reheating or soaking.

Sludge - Material that develops during the plating process. It accumulates in the plater cells and is removed every eight weeks.

Slug - A metal blank for forging or impacting

Sluice Water - Raw water that is boosted in pressure to approximately 180 psi. This water is used by the Venturies for soot blowing and tap-out, as ditch water (sluice water) for tapping the boilers and dumping the ash boxes, and as fill for boiler raw water hydrostatic tests.

Slurry - A term loosely applied to any clay-like dispersion. It may be use to wash ladles or other refractory linings to impart a smooth surface; as a bonding addition to molding sand; as a thin loam over specially made molds or as a mixture to fine joints or cracks of a core, etc.

Small Side - Used to describe the side of the weld with the narrower width.

Small Winch - The tool used to position the big winch's cable and hook. It is located at the Coal Bucket Operator's door leading to the unloading tracks.

Smelt - To melt ores,seperating the metallic constituents.

Smelter - Facility is used to extract metal concentrates found inside mined ore. The ore will often contain more than one kind of metal concentrate and this facility also separates them.

Smelting - A metallurgical thermal process in which a metal is separated in fused form from nonmetallic materials or other undesired metals with which it is associated.

Smith Hammer - Any power hammer where impression dies are not used for reproduction of commercially exact forging.

SMLS - Seamless pipe with no weld in the circumference.

Smothering Ring - Ring that has 16 steam jets and sits on V.C. Hood that helps to keep dirt and flames in boiler while on 02 blow.

Smudge - A smear on the plate that can be caused by sanding a roll (mainly in the hot rinse).

Snake - Any crooked surface defect in a plate, resembling a snake.

Snaking - A series of reversing lateral bows in coil products. This condition is caused by a weaving action during an unwinding or rewinding operation.

Snubber - Hydraulic roll used to prevent the outside wrap from unwinding while threading the strip into the pinch roll and leveler.

Snubber Roll - A small roll used with a bridle roll. The purpose of the snubber roll is to hold the strip against the bridle roll.

Soaking - Prolonged heating of a metal, furnace or ladle at a selected temperature.

Sodium Silicate - See Water Glass

Soft Skin Rolled Temper (No. 4 Temper) - In low carbon-rolled strip steel, soft and ductile. Produced by subjecting annealed strip to a pinch pass or skin rolling (a very light rolling).

Softening - A process used to soften metals through annealing or tempering.

Sold - That material which has a tendency to resist any attempt to change its size or shape.

Soldering - Joining metals by fusion of alloys that have relatively low melting points -- most commonly, lead-base or tin-base alloys, which are the soft solders. Hard solders are alloys that have silver, copper, or nickel bases and use of these alloys with melting points higher than 800 (degrees) F. is generally termed brazing.

Solenoid - Electrically activated switch which allows a pneumatic signal to be applied or removed from a valve or other device to control its function.

Solenoid Valve - A spool type, magnetic coil controlled hydraulic directional valve. There are single solenoid (one coil), and double solenoid (two coil) type valves.

Solidification - The physical process of change from a liquid to a solid state.

Solution Annealing - Solution annealing is a process performed on steels. In our case, these aare primarily the 300 series stainless. The process consists of heating the material up to a temperature above 1950F and holding it long enough for the carbon to go into solution. After this, the material is quickly cooled to prevent the carbon from coming out of solution. Solutio-annealed material is in its most corrosion-resistant and ductile (farmable) condition.

Solvent - A cleaning solution used to dissolve grease and oil.

Solvent pop - Blistering caused by entrapped solvent during baking, possibly caused by short flashoff or improper solvent balance.

Soot Blower - Same as a deslagger. A rotating retractable steam lance used to remove slag from the boiler tubes and walls.

Soot Pit - Hoppers located in the exhaust side of the boiler that serve the purpose of collecting the heavier particles of soot and debris that are carried in the exhaust gas stream. The soot pits are drained every turn by a Venturi type suction system.

Sorbite - Structure of steel, resulting from the tempering of martensite. In a truly sorbitic structure, the cementite is completely dispersed in the matrix. The trend is to call this structure tempered martensite.

Sorbite (obsolete) - A fine mixture of ferrite and cementite produced either by regulating the rate of cooling of steel or tempering steel after hardening. The first type is very fine pearlite difficult to resolve under the microscope; the second type is tempered martensite.

Sorry Weld - Weld which computer passes by; the computer is told not to cut this weld - No. 9 Tandem.

Spacers - Steel plates used to separate coils stacked on top of each other in batch annealing.

Spalling - The cracking and flaking of metal particles from a surface.

Spangle - Finish achieved when zinc is allowed to "freeze" naturally on the sheet - galvanize. Achieved by adding antimony to the hot dip bath.

Spangle Free - A galvanized product in which the spangle formation has been suppressed; accomplished by eliminating Antimony and Lead in the molten zinc bath during the production of Hot Dipped Galvanized. Galvannealed is always spangle free.

Spanner Wrench - Special wrench used in tightening arbor nuts.

Spark Testing - This is an inspection method for quickly determining the approxiamte analyst of steel. It is intended primarily for the separation of mixed steel and when properly conducted,is a fast, accurate and economical method of separation. It consists in holding the sample against a high speed grinding wheel and noting the character and color of the spark which is compared with samples of known analysis.

Spary Quenching - After solution heat treating, a mode of quenching in which a spray of water is directed upon material just removed from the furnace.

SPEC - specification

Special Bar Quality (SBQ) - SBQ represents a wide variety of higher-quality carbon and alloy bars that are used in the forging, machining and cold-drawing industries for the production of automotive parts, hand tools, electric motor shafts and valves. SBQ generally contains more alloys than merchant quality and commodity grades of steel bars, and is produced with more precise dimensions and chemistry.

Special Killed - 1.) Low carbon aluminum killed steels used mainly for extra deep drawing varieties of sheet and strip. 2) Steel deoxidized by silicon or aluminum or in combination to reduce the oxygen content to a minimum so that no reaction occurs during solidification of the metal.

Special Metals - Designates all alloys and metals produced at USSM other than stainless steels and precipitation hardenable stainless steels. Categories of special metals would include nickel,nickel base alloys,cobalt base alloys,titanium and titanium base alloys,glass sealing alloys (iron-nickle),etc.

Special Treatment - A treatment applied to electrogalvanized to enhance corrosion resistance.

Specialty Steel - Steels such as electrical, alloy or stainless steels. These generally are produced in smaller volumes to meet the specific needs of customers.

Specialty Tube - Refers to a wide variety of high-quality custom-made tubular products requiring critical tolerances, precise dimensional control and special metallurgical properties. Specialty tubing is used in the manufacture of automotive, construction and agricultural equipment, and in industrial applications such as hydraulic cylinders, machine parts and printing rollers. Because of the range of industrial applications, the market typically follows general economic conditions.

Specific Gravity - "A numerical value representing the weight of a given substance as compared with the weight of an equal volume of water at 39 B0F (3.9 B0C), for which the specific gravity is taken as 1,000 kg/m3. See also Density "

Specific Heat - Equivalent to thermal capacity, or the quantity of heat required to produce a unit change in the temperature of a unit mass.

Specific Volume - Volume of one gram of a substance at a specific temperature, usually 68 B0F (20 B0C).

Specifications - The chemical composition and dimensions of products made by the plant. The specifications include all processes required to achieve the finished product.

Specimen - That portion of a sample taken for evaluation of some specific characteristic or property

Spheroidizing - A form of annealing consisting of prolonged heating of iron base alloys at a temperature in the neighborhood of, but generally slightly below the critical range, usually followed by a relatively slow cooling. Spheroidizing causes the graphite to assume a spheroidal shape, hence the name.

Spheroidizing Annealing - A subcritical annealing treatment intended to produce spheroidization of cementite or other carbide phases.

Spheroidite - A cementite aggregate of globular carbide and ferrite.

Spheroidized Cementite (Divorced Pearlite) - The globular condition of iron carbide after a spheroidizing treatment.

Spiegeleisen (Spiegel) - Alloy of iron and manganese used in basic and acid open hearth steelmaking practice. A high manganese pig iron, usually containing 15% or 20 Mn and 4.5-6.5% C.

Spindle - Part of the slitter head shaft that holds the spacers, knives, fibers, and nuts.

Spiral Test - A method of interpreting the fluidity of an alloy by pouring molten metal into a mold with a long narrow channel. The length of such casting, under standardized conditions, is taken as the fluidity index of that alloy.

Splash Core - A core of tile placed in a mold to prevent erosion of the mold at places where metal impinges with more than normal force. Splash cores are commonly used at the bottom of large rammed pouring basins, at the bottom of long downsprues, or at the ingates of large molds.

Splice - The end joint uniting two webs.

Split - 1) IMIS action for a smaller produced coil that has been split from a larger consumed coil. 2) (Stripped) The process of unloading any or all coils from stools/bases in the Batch Anneal.

Split Count - Field incremented by one each time a consumed IPM is split into smaller coils which are then assigned individual IPM's.

Split Wind - Tying all of the blowers into one main header to feed wind to more than one furnace.

Spongy Casting - A casting in which the metal is porous and dendritic.

Spooled Coil - A coil having edges that are turned up (like a spool of thread).

Spot - (or Coupon) A round disk of steel cut from the strip used in determining Rockwell hardness and coating weight. The disk has a diameter of 2.52 inches, and an area of 5 square inches.

Spot Check - A coil processed on the plater and sent to the Side Trimmer to check for defects.

Spot, Lube - A non-uniform extraneous deposit of lube on the coated sheet.

Spot material - Metal or finished products available for prompt delivery.

Spot Welding - An electric-resistance welding process in which the fusion is limited to a small area. The pieces being welded are pressed together between a pair of water-cooled electrodes through which an electical current is passed during a very short interval so that fusion occurs over a small area at the interface between the pieces.

Spout - A trough through which the metal flows from the furnace to the ladle.

Spreader Hooks - Lifting device used by crane to move coils. Consists of a heavy top bar and two manually adjustable arms.

Spring-Back - An indicator of elastic stresses, frequently measured as the increase in diameter of a curved strip after removing it from the mandrel about which it was held. The measurement is employed as an indicator of the extent of recovery or relief of residual stresses that has been achieved by the transformation of elastic strain to plastic strain during heating or stress relieving.

Sprue Base - An enlargement or rounded section at the bottom of the downsprue, used to help streamline the flow of metal into the runner, lowering the velocity.

Sprue Bottom - A print attached to the top or squeeze board of a mold to make an impression in the cope indicating where the sprue should be cut.

Sprue Cutter - A metal tool used in cutting the pouring aperture, the sprue hole.

Sprue Hole - The opening through which the metal is poured into the cope to run into the casting cavity.

Squareness - Characteristic of having adjacent sides or planes meeting at 90 degrees

Squeeze Board - A board used on the cope half of the mold to permit squeezing of the mold.

Squeeze Head - In certain type of molding machines, a stationary or movable plate against which a filled mold is compressed, in order to complete the compacting of the sand.

Squeezer Machine - A power-operated, usually pneumatic, device used to pack sand into a flask.

SR - See Single Reduced.

SR Plate - Single Reduced Plate. This product comes from the Temper Mills and goes to the Tin Mill for processing but does not get any further cold reduction.

SRI - See Steel Recycling Institute.

SRL - Single random length- line pipe with 17.5 minimum average length

Stabilization - A term applied to a number of processes: a)A type of heat treatment to relieve internal stresses. b)The retarding or prevention of a particular reaction by the addition of stabilising element. c)a thermal and/or mechanical treatment given to magnetic material in order to increase the permanency of its magnetic properties or condition.

Stabilizing - A low temperature thermal treatment designed to prevent age-softening in certain strains hardened alloys containing magnesium

Stabilizing Anneal - A treatment applied to austentic stainless steels that contain titanium or columbium. This treatment consists of heating to a temperature below that of a full anneal in order to precipitate the maximum amount of carbon at titanium carbide or columbium carbide. This eliminates precipitation at lower temperatures, which might reduce the resistance of the steel to corrosion.

Stack - 1) A component of a hydraulic system that runs an individual function of that system. 2) The boiler exhaust pipe. Each stack is equipped with a stack cap for isolating the boiler from atmosphere and two butterflies for directing the gases to either A & B and C & D scrubbers.

Stack Test - A full width sample of chem-treat steel saved for metallurgical testing.

Stagger Wind - Uneven winding of coil on delivery end; used for shearplate.

Stagger Wrap - Offsetting the laps and wrap of a coil by turning the askania handle so that the coil does not wrap straight.

Staging Area - A small (3-20 coil) area of floor space, usually at the delivery end or the entry end of an operating unit. These are areas where inventory is being loaded on or removed from an operating unit.

Stain - A defect on the plate causing a discoloration of the plate.

Stain, Heat Treat: - A discoloraation due to non-uniform oxidation of the metal surface during heat treatment.

Stain, Oil - Suface discoloration which may vary from dark brown to white and is produced during thermal treatment by imcomplete evaporation and/or oxidation of lubricants on the surface

Stain, Saw Lubricant - A yellow to brown area of the surface discoloration at the ends of the extruded length. It is the residue of certain types of saw lubricants if they are not removed from the metal prior to the thermal treatment

Stainless Steel - Corrosion resistant steel of a wide variety, but always containing a high percentage of chromium generally 10% more. These are highly resistant to corrosion attack by organic acids, weak mineral acids, atmospheric oxidation, etc.

Stall - Term used to indicate that the line has tension on it, but is not moving.

Stand - 1) A component of a hydraulic system, which is made up of a number of stacks. 2) Sets of rolls; Both Temper Mills consist of two stands. Some are four rolls; two backup rolls and two work rolls. Some are work rolls only.

Stand (Batch Anneal) - (Batch Anneal) Same as "stool."

Stand-by Pump - A pump in a hydraulic or morgoil system that will kick on automatically if the running pump should shut down because of electrical problems.

Standard Cost Code - 1.) Accounting field connected to unit standards for doing specific prodcuts; will vary by unit. 2) Code entered into IMIS to identify the incoming product and to identify the process applied to the product by the side trimmer.

Standard Deviation - A statistical quantity used to describe the variation of a measurable attribute about some average value.

Standard Gold - A legally adopted alloy for coinage of gold. In the United States the alloy contains 10% Cu.

Standard Pattern - A pattern of high-grade material and workmanship in daily use or at frequent intervals. A pattern used as a master to make or check production patterns.

Standard Samples - A sample of know composition used to calibrate an instrument or method of analysis.

Standard Shapes - Refractory units stocked by manufacturers or made from stock molds.

Standardize - Act of recalibrating the x-ray gauge equipment.

Start-UP - The first turn after the line has been down.

Starting Heat - Heat cycle setting on the welder for the start of the weld.

Station Tie - Name of the transformer in the power house that ties the 23KV bus in the power house with the 6.9 KV bus that is called the 'Synchronizing Bus'.

Starvation - Non-uniform coating application which results in absence of coating in certain areas.

Stave Construction - Attaching staves to polygonshaped heads in the building of cylindrical bodies; also, standard method used in making semicircular core boxes.

STC - Short thread and coupling (OCTG casing connection)

STD - Standard reference to wall thickness of pipe ( sch 1/8-10)

Steam Blowing Process - A process that puts water droplets on steel leaving the galvanizing pot to suppress spangle formation. See Minimized Spangle and Spangle Free.

Steam Chest - The inside of the turbine housing.

Steam Demand - The necessary amount of steam generation required at any point in time to satisfy the power house, turbo blowers, and any additional needs of the steel-making process.

Steam Drum - The upper drum/drums of the boiler. This is where the feed water is introduced, continuous blow down takes place, the water level is controlled, and the steam is released at the surface of the water and exits to the superheater elements.

Steam Flow - The measured amount of steam generated by the boiler at any given time, expressed in thousands of pounds per hour.

Steam Hammer - A type of drop hammer where the ram is raised for each stroke by a double-action steam cylinder and the energy delivered to the workpiece is supplied by the velocity and weight of the ram and attached upper die driven downward by steam pressure. Energy delivered during each stroke may be varied.

Steam Header Line - High pressure line which connects the boiler to the power house manifold and through which the steam is delivered.

Steam Header Valve - Electrically or manually operated stop valve located in line on the steam header line used to isolate a boiler off the system when needed.

Steam Pressure - The amount of pressure that the steam has. It is either high pressure @800 lbs. or low pressure @ 210 lbs.

Steam Seal - A type of seal that is applied to the shaft on a turbine by putting steam around the shaft to stop the flow of air into a turbine.

Steam Temperature - The temperature of the steam as it enters the turbine.

Steam Trays - Items that let water pass through steam lines without losing steam pressure.

Steckel Mill - A reversing steel sheet reduction mill with heated coil boxes at each end. Steel sheet or plate is sent through the rolls of the reversing mill and coiled at the end of the mill, reheated in the coil box, and sent back through the Steckel stands and recoiled. By reheating the steel prior to each pass, the rolls can squeeze the steel thinner per pass and impart a better surface finish.

Steel - An iron-base alloy usually containing carbon and other alloying elements. In carbon steel and low-alloy steel, the maximum carbon content is about 2.0%; in high-alloy steel, about 2.5%. The dividing line between low-alloy and high-alloy steels is generally regarded as the 5% level of total metallic alloying elements. Steel is differentiated from two general classes of iron - namely, cast irons, which have high carbon concentrations, and relatively pure irons, which have low carbon concentrations.

Steel Drum - Center insert that keeps a coil from collapsing. Used on DR material.

Steel Insert - Small corrugated insert used to keep coils from collapsing before rewinding.

Steel Intensity - The amount of steel used per unit of gross domestic product. Intensity reflects the secular demand for steel, as opposed to cyclical demand. The amount of steel used in vehicles and the popularity of alternative materials affect the intensity, or how much steel is needed per unit produced. The state of the economy, however, determines the number of units.

Steel Service Center Inventories - End-of-period material stocks reported by the Steel Service Center Institute (SSCI).

Steel Spec - Ordered steel grade based on chemistry.

Steel Strapping - Banding and packaging material that is used to close and reinforce shipping units, such as bales, boxes, cartons, coils, crates, and skids.

Steel Substrate - Base metal which may be coated or plated.

Steel-Intensive Products - Consumer products such as automobiles and appliances that, because so much of their weight is from steel, exhibit a high demand correlation with steel.

Steels, SAE - Common designation for the standard grades of steel approved by the Society of Automotive Engineers.

Steeped Construction - In patternmaking, the courses of material that when fastened together resemble steps.

Steering Roll - A device or set of rolls used to position the passline of the strip.

Stellite - Proprietary name of a group of complex alloys retaining their hardness strength and resistance to oxidation at high temperatures; contains W, Co, Cr and C.

Stencil - Identification painted on pipe. Specification, size, wall test pressure, methoc of maufacture and mill are usually indicated.

Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA) - Equipment used for computerized building of three-dimensional models and patterns. Enables the data representation of a CAD solid model to be directly converted into a plastic model of a casting.

Sticker - Steel sheets or strip adhering. Usually by fusion spots caused by overheating during box annealing.

Sticking - Adherence of foil surfaces sufficient to interfere with the normal ease if unwinding

Stock Allowance - Material added to a part to allow for surface preparation or precise dimensioning by machining.

Stock Core - Core of standard diameter usually made on a core machine and kept on hand, sawed to required length.

Stool - The platform on which coils are stacked on a base. Also known as "stand."

Stool Plate - Plate on a mold machine on which stools are mounted.

Stooling - Supporting green sand cores in machine molding while pattern is being withdrawn.

Stop-Cock Valve - See PitCock Valve.

Stopper Head - A refractory shape at the end of a stopper rod, usually clay and graphite, seated in a ladle's nozzle.

Stopper Rod - A device in a bottom-pour ladle for controlling the flow of metal through the nozzle into the casting. The stopper rod consists of a steel rod, protecting sleeves, and a graphite stopper head. It may also be a single piece manufactured from graphite.

Stopping-Off - Filling in a portion of a mold cavity which is not to be cast.

Storage Bins - Used for storage of raw materials to ensure a necessary quantity required for sinter production.

Straight-Chrome - An iron alloy. A term indicating a group of stainless steels the principal alloying element of which is chromium in varying amounts from 4.00 to 27.00%.

Straightness - The absence of divergence from a right (straight) line in the direction of measurement

Strain - The amount of elongation or compression that occurs in a metal at a given stress or load. Generally in terms of inches elongation per inch of material.

Strained Casting - A phrase used to describe the result when molten metal is poured into the mold at too fast a rate or under too great metallstatic pressure, causing the cope to rise slightly from the drag and resulting in an oversize casting.

Strainer - A filtering device which is used to remove large particles of contamination from drive oil or morgoil.

Strainer Basket - A metal filtering basket which is part of a strainer assembly.

Strainer Core - See Core Strainer

Streak (Stripe) - A superficial band or elongated mark which produces a non-uniform surface appearance. A streak is often described by source.

Streak, Bearing - A longitudinal discoloration that can occur where there are large changes in wall thickness as a result of uneven cooling. These streaks usually appear lighter than the surrounding metal.

Streak, Bright - A bright superficial band or elongated mark which produces a non-uni8form surface appearance.

Streak, Buff - A dull continuous streak caused by smudge buildup on a buff used at shearing or other operation.

Streak, Burnish - A bright region on the sheet caused by excessive roll surface wear.

Streak, Coating - A banded condition caused by non-uniform adherence of roll coating to a work roll. It can be created during hot and/or cold rolling. If generated in the hot rolling process, it is also called Hot Mill Pickup.

Streak, Cold - See Streak, Heat.

Streak, Diffusion - Surface discoloration which may vary from gray to brown and found only on Alclad products.

Streak, Dirt - Surface discoloration which may vary from gray to black, is parallel to the direction of rolling, and contains rolled foreign debris. It is usually extraneous material from an overhead location that drops onto the rolling surface and is shallow enough to be removed by etching or buffing

Streak, Grease - A narrow discontinuous streak caused by rolling over an area containing grossly excessive lubricant drippage.

Streak, Grinding - A streak with a helical pattern appearance transferred to a rolled product from work roll.

Streak, Heat - Milky colored band(s) parallel to the rolling direction which vary in both width and exact location along the length.

Streak, Herringbone - Elongated alternately bright and dull chevron markings.

Streak, Leveler - A streak on the sheet surface in the rolling direction caused by transfer from the leveler rolls.

Streak, Roll - A non-uniform surface appearance parallel to the rolling direction.

Streak, Structural - A non-uniform appearance on an etched or anodized surface caused by heterogeneities (variabilities) remaining in the metal from the casting, thermal processes or hot working stages of fabrication.

Streamline Flow - Steady flow of liquid without turbulence. Generally, not experienced in metalcasting.

Strength, Retained - Compressive, shear, tensile, or transverse strength attained by a sand mixture after being subjected to a cycle or cycles of heating and cooling which approximate foundry practice.

Strength - Properties related to the ability of steel to oppose applied forces. Forms of strength include withstanding imposed loads without a permanent change in shape or structure and resistance to stretching.

Strength, Baked - Compressive, shear, tensile, or transverse strength of a molded sand mixture when baked at a temperature above 230 B0F (110 B0C) and then cooled to room temperature.

Stress - Force per unit area, often thought of as force acting through a small area within a plane. It can be divided into components, normal and parallel to the plane, called normal stress and shear stress, receptively. True stress denotes the stress where force and area are measured at the same time. Conventional stress, as applied to tension and compression tests, is force decided by the original gauge length. Shearing strain (or shear strain) is the change in angle (expressed in radians) between two lines originally at right angles. When the term strain is used alone it usually refers to the linear strain in the direction of the applied stress.

Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) - Slow growth of cracks in stainless steel caused by the combined effect of mechanical stress and exposure to a corrosive environment.

Stress Corrosion Failure - A phenomenon which occurs when metal under stress in a corrosive atmosphere fails mechanically.

Stress, Relieving - A process of reducing residual stresses in a metal object to a suitable temperature and holding for a sufficient time. This treatment may be applied to relieve stresses induced by quenching, normalizing, machining, cold working, or welding.

Stress, Residual - Those stresses setup up in a metal as a result of nonuniform plastic deformation or the unequal cooling of a casting.

Stress-Corrosion Cracking - Spontaneous failure of metals by cracking under combined conditions of corrosion and stress, either residual or applied.

Stress-corrosion Cracking - Failure by cracking under the combined action of corrosion and stress, either external (applied) or internal (residual). Cracking may be either intergranular or transgranular, depending on the metal and the corrosive medium.

Stress-Rupture Test - A tension test performed at constant temperature, the load being held at such a level as to cause rupture. Also known as creep-rupture test.

Stretch Forming - A process of forming panels and cowls of large curvature by stretching sheet over a form of the desired shape. This method is more rapid than hammering and beating.

Stretcher Leveling - Leveling where a piece of metal is gripped at each end and subjected to a stress higher than its yield strength to remove warp and distortion. Sometimes called patent leveling.

Stretcher Straightening - A process for straightening rod, tubing, and shapes by the application of tension at the ends of the stock. The products are elongated a definite amount to remove warpage.

Stretcher Strains - Long vein-like marks appearing on the surface of certain metals, in the direction of the maximum shear stress, when the metal is subjected to deformation beyond the yield point. Also termed Luders Lines. (Not a defect in No. 5 dead soft temper.)

Stretcher Strains - Irregular lines that develop on steel during the drawing or stretching process. See fluting.

Striation - A coating defect consisting of a series of near parallel lines or channels in the cured coating. Striation is a type of flow mark, which is caused by some contaminant, such a silicone flowout. Striation is similar to ribbing, but striation is usually smaller in size and not always parallel.

Strike-Off - Operation of removing excess sand from top or core box or flask.

Stringer - 1) A defect caused by the coating dies allowing excess coating to accumulate on the edge of the strip. 2) The last coil threaded through the line before a shutdown. The stringer coil remains in the line until start up.

Strip - Thin, flat steel that resembles hot-rolled sheet, but it is normally narrower (up to 12 inches wide) and produced to more closely controlled thicknesses. Strip also may be cut from steel sheet by a slitting machine (see Sheet Steel).

Strip Cooler - Set of adjustable air nozzles that blow compressed air on the strip to help achieve zinc drying.

Strip Steel Chart - A chart that shows how much water pressure is going to the strip.

Stripper Pins - On certain molding machines, a series of pins (usually four in number) which support the rammed flask-half at the parting surface so that the mounted pattern may be drawn by lowering.

Stripping - Removing the pattern from the mold or core box from core.

Stripping Time - In oil-oxygen and nobake mixture, the moment when the core box may be satisfactorily drawn from the core, or pattern from the sand.

Strobe Light - A light that is used throughout the line to help 'see' defects. The strobe light is mainly used at the reflow areas.

Structural Quality - Material applicable to the various classes of structures, indicated by the standard specifications, which is suitable for the different mechanical operations employed for the fabrication of such structures. Structural quality (the characteristics of which are defined in the standard specifications of the American Society for Testing Materials) represents the quality of steel produced under regular or normal manufacturing conditions.

Structural Streak - See Streak, Structural.

Structurals - Steel product group that includes I-beams, H-beams, wide-flange beams and sheet piling. These products are used in the construction of multi-story buildings, industrial buildings, bridge trusses, vertical highway supports, and riverbank reinforcement.

Structure (Cast Structure) - The size and disposition of the constituents of a metal as cast.

Styroform Pattern - Expendable pattern of foamed plastic, especially polystyrene, use in manufacturing casting by the Full_Mold process.

Sub - A short coupling with different types and/or sizes of ends.

Subcutaneous Blowhole - Blowholes at or near the surface of solidified metal, covered with a thin layer of metal. May also be called pinhole porosity.

Subgrain - A portion of a crystal or grain slightly different in orientation from neighboring portions of the same crystal. Generally, neighboring subgrains are separated by low-angle boundaries.

Substation - Name given to an area that is an electrical power distribution center. A substation may contain several feeders of different voltages, transformers, and the associated circuit breakers and instrumentation for protection.

Subzero Treatment - Refrigeration of steel to promote transformation of retained austenite.

Suck-In - A Defect caused when one face of a forging is sucked in to fill a projection on the opposite side.

Surface Tear - Minute surface cracks on rolled products which can be caused by insufficient ingot scalping,

Suction Filter - A filter that cleans the hydraulic oil as it leaves the system's storage tank before it enters the pump.

Sulfide Staining - A coating defect consisting of a dark grey-black colored residue on tinplate which occurs when a break in the coating permits a high sulfur food to contact the tinplate.

Sulfur - A nonmetallic element, melting point 444 B0C (831.2 B0F) occurring as an undesirable tramp (trace) element in most ferrous alloys.

Sulfur Prints - A macrographic method of examining for the distribution of sulfide impurities, in which a sheet of wet acidified bromide paper is placed on the polished surface to be examined.

Superalloy - An alloy developed for very high temperature use where relatively high stresses are encountered and where oxidation resistance is needed.

Supercooling - Lowering the temperature of a molten metal below its liquidus during cooling.

Superduty Fireclay Brick - Having pce above 33 with less than 1.0 percent linear shrink in the 1599 B0C (2910 B0F) reheat test, and less than 4.0 percent loss in panel spalling test preheated at 1649 B0C (3000 B0F).

Superficial Rockwell Hardness Test - Form of Rockwell hardness test using relatively light loads which produce minimum penetration. Used for determining surface hardness or hardness of thin sections or small parts, or where large hardness impression might be harmful.

Superheat - Any increment of temperature above the melting point of a metal; sometimes construed to be any increment of temperature above normal casting temperatures introduced for the purpose of refining, alloying or improving fluidity.

Superheated Steam - Steam that has passed through the superheater elements and has become saturated with heat to a temperature of approximately 850 degrees. Higher steam temperature allows for greater expansion of the steam in it's end use and thus more work can be performed by a given amount of steam.

Superheater Elements - Bank of boiler tubes whose purpose is to increase the steam temperature under the same pressure before it exits the boiler. Only steam passes through the superheater elements. This bank of tubes is in the hottest fire in the boiler.

Superheating - (1) Heating a phase to a temperature above that of a phase transformation without the transformation taking place. (2) Heating molten metal to a temperature to obtain more complete refining or greater fluidity.

Supersaturated - Metastable solution in which the dissolved material exceeds the amount the solvent can hold in normal equilibrium at the temperature and under the other conditions that prevail.

Supersonic Reflectoscope - An instrument for sending, receiving, and measuring sound waves over 20,000 cycles per second.

Supersucker - A truck that is used to remove sludge from the plater cells and plater distribution tank.

Support Pin - Large steel pin used to hold the burr mashers in place.

Supramor - An electromagnetic flaw detection ink for the rapid detection of subcutaneous and surface flaws in ferrous metals.

Surface Contamination - A defect referring to a particle or substance foreign to the typical surface generated during normal steel production. Such a foreign substance may be in the form of a film, oxide growth, imbedded material, etc., and may cause discoloration, poor lacquer adhesion, container forming problems, corrosion, etc.

Surface Critical - An order specification which indicates the end use requirement and dictates special processing to ensure a uniform, "defect free" surface.

Surface Finish - (Tin Mill Products) The ground roll finishes are 7B, a smooth finish, normally for melted coatings intended for special applications; 7C, the standard mill finish, for either melted or unmelted coatings is the finish used for most applications. The blasted roll finishes are 5B, a shot blast finish (SBF) with a melted tin coating; 5C, a shot blast finish with an unmelted tin coating, principally for crowns and closures; 5D, a shot blast finish with and unmelted tin coating primarily for D&I cans.

Surface Hardening - A generic term covering several processes applicable to a suitable ferrous alloy that produce, by quench hardening only, a surface layer that is harder or more wear resistant than the core. There is no significant alteration of the chemical composition of the surface layer. The processes commonly used are induction hardening, flame hardening and shell hardening. Use of the applicable specific process name is preferred.

Surface Imperfections - A superficial defect that mars the surface of steel and is detrimental to the end use; examples include blisters and roll mark defects.

Surface Inclusion - An inclusion or non-metallic particles that shows through at the surface of the steel. (See also Inclusion)

Surface Oil Oil which - Oil which is applied for corrosion protection or other special purposes.

Surface Protection Air Liquide (SPAL) - The use of liquid argon, liquid nitrogen, or carbon dioxide snow to minimize the reaction of air and molten metal that normally occurs in an induction furnace. The liquid or snow is fed onto the surface of the molten metal where it vaporizes, displacing the air thus reducing slag and oxygen levels.

Surface Roughness - The texture or "pattern" of a steel surface determined by the grit on the roll or the grind on a brite roll.

Surface Texture - The roughness, waviness, lay or other characteristics of the surface of a part.

Surfacing - Depositing a filer metal on a metal surface by any method to obtain certain desired properties or dimensions.

Surge Valve - A valve that is used to release pressure and wind on a blower and to vent it to atmosphere.

Survival Power - The amount of power a mill must generate to keep power on critical areas (e.g. blast furnace, BOP, etc.) in the event that we should lose feeders 206 and 208 from Mon Power.

Swage - Operation of reducing or changing the cross-sectional area by revolving the stock under fast impact of blows. Finishing tool with concave working surface; useful for rounding out work after its preliminary drawing to size.

Swell - A casting defect consisting of an increase in metal section due to the displacement of sand by metal pressure.

Swing Frame Grinder - A device for grinding large castings where the work remains stationary. This grinder, too large to be hand lifted, is usually suspended from a hoist.

Switch - The process of returning empty cars to the yard and getting cars loaded with coal.

Switchgear - Enclosures that house circuit breakers, metering and protective relaying equipment and also distributes electrical power.

Switching - An action by the Load Dispatcher of opening or closing various circuit breakers in the plant for various reasons such as work by line gang, work by breaker gang, restoring lost power.

Synchronize - The act of bringing one electrical system (or generator) into perfect electrical alignment with a separate electrical system. For example, the A phase of system 1 would be reaching its peak at the exact same time as the A phase of system 2. It is only when you have this synchronization that you can close a circuit breaker and tie the two systems together.

Synthetic Molding Sand - Any sand compounded from selected individual materials which, when mixed together, produce a mixture of the proper physical and mechanical properties from which to make foundry molds.

System Sand - "Foundry sand used in making molds and which eventually becomes the bulk of the sand used in the mechanical system or mechanized unit. See also Sand "

System Start - Button on the oil system's control panels which is pushed after the pump selections have been made in order to start the system.

System Stop - Button on the oil systems' control panel that is pushed to shut down the system.

SAE - Abbreviation for Society of Automotive Engineers. This organization has specified common and alloy steels and copper base alloys in accordance with a numerical index system allowing approximation of the composition of the metal. The last two digits always indicate the carbon content, usually within 0.05%.

Salt Spray Test - An accelerated corrosion test in which the metal specimens are exposed to a fine mist of salt water solution either continuously or intermittently.

Scab - A defect consisting of a flat volume of metal joined to a casting through a small area. It is usually set in a depression, a flat side being separated from the metal of the casting proper by a thin layer of sand.

Scab (scabby) - A blemish caused on a casting by eruption of gas from the mold face, or by uneven mold surfaces; or occurring where the skin from a blowhole has partly burned away and is not welded.

Scale - A layer of oxidation products formed on a metal at high temperature.

Scaling - (1) Oxidation of metal due to heat, resulting in relatively heavy surface layers of oxide. (2) Removal of scale from metal.

Scaling - Forming a thick layer of oxidation products on metals at high temperatures.

Scalped Extrusion Ingot - A cast, solid, or hollow extrusion ingot which has been machined on the outside surface.

Scalping - Machining the surface layers from ingots, billets and slabs before fabrication.

Scarf Joint - A butt joint in which the plane of the joint is inclined with respect to the main axes of the members.

Scleroscope Test - A hardness test where the loss in kinetic energy of a falling metal tup, absorbed by indentation upon impact of the tup on the metal being tested, is indicated by the height of rebound.

Scrap - Material unsuitable for direct use but usable for reprocessing by re-melting.

Scratch Brushed Finish - Finish obtained by mechanically brushing the surface with wire bristle brushes, by buffing with greaseless compound or by cold rolling with wire bristled rolls on scratch etched finish.

Seam - On the surface of metal, an unwelded ford or lap which appears as a crack, usually resulting from a defect obtained in casting or in working.

Seam Welding - An electric-resistance type of welding process, in which the lapped sheet is passed between electrodes of the roller type while a series of overlapping spot welds is made by the intermittent application of electric current.

Secondary Hardening - Tempering certain alloy steels at certain temperatures so that the resulting hardness is greater than that obtained by tempering the same steel at some lower temperature for the same time.

Segregation - Nonuniform distribution of alloying elements, impurities or phases.

Segregation - Nonumiform distribution of alloying elements, impurities or microphases.

Segregation - In an alloy, concentration of alloying elements at specific regions, usually as a result of the primary crystallization of one phase with the subsequent concentration of other elements in the remaining liquid.

Segregation Banding - In homogeneous distribution of alloying elements aligned on filaments or plates parallel to the direction of working.

Self Diffusion - The spontaneous movement of an atom to a new site in a crystal of its own species.

Self-Hardening Steel - A steel containing sufficient carbon or alloying element, or both, fo form martensite either through air hardening or, as in welding and induction hardening, through rapid removal of heat from a locally heated portion by conduction into the surrounding cold metal.

Semi-Steel - Cast iron (not steel) of high quality, obtained by using a large percentage of steel scrap with the pig iron.

Semifinished Steel - Steel in the form of billets, blooms, itc., requiring further working before completion into finished steel ready for marketing.

Semikilled Steel - Steel that is incompletely deoxidized and contains sufficient dissolved oxygen to react with the carbon to form carbon monoxide and thus offset solidification shrinkage.

Semikilled Steel - Steel that is completely deoxided and contains sufficient dissolved oxygen to react with the carbon to form carbon monoxide to offset solidifacation shrinkage.

Semikilled Steel - Steel incompletely deoxidized, to permit evolution of sufficient carbon monoxide to offset solidification shrinkage.

Sendzimir Mill - A mill having two work rolls of 1 to 2 1/2-in diam. each, backed up by two rolls twice that diameter and each of these backed up by bearings on a shaft mounted eccentrically so that rotating it increases the pressure between bearings and backup rolls.

Shear - A type of cutting operation in which the metal object is cut by means of a moving blade and fixed edge or by a pair of moving blades that may be either flat or curved.

Shear - That type of force that causes or tends to cause two contiguous parts of the same body to slide relative to each other in a direction parallel to their plane of contact.

Shear Crack - A diagonal, transgranular crack caused by shear stresses.

Shear Steel - Steel produced by forge welding together several bars of blister steel, providing a more homogeneous product.

Shear Strength - The stress required to produce fracture in the plane of cross section, the conditions of loading being such that the directions of force and of resistance are parallel and opposite although their paths are offset a specified minimum amount.

Sheet - A flat-rolled metal product of some maximum thickness and minimum width arbitrarily dependent on the type of metal. Sheet is thinner than plate.

Shell Molding - Forming a mold from thermosetting resin-bonded sand mixtures brought in contact with pregeated (300 to 500 (degrees) F) metal patterns, resulting in a firm shell with a cavity corresponding to the outline of the pattern. Also called Croning process.

Shielded-Arc Welding - Arc welding in which the arc and the weld metal are protected by a gaseous atmosphere, the products of decomposition of the electrode covering, or a blanket of fusible flux.

Shore Hardness Test - Same as scleroscope test.

Short - Brittle.

Shortness - A form of brittleness in metal. It is designated as cold, hot, and red, to indicate the temperature range in which the brittleness occurs.

Shot Blasting - Cleaning surface of metal by air blast, using metal as a result of solidification shrinkage and the progressive freezing of metal towards the center.

Shrinkage Cavity - A void left in cast metals as a result of solidification shrinkage and the progressive freezing of metal towards the center.

Siliconizing - Diffusing silicon into solid metal, usually steel, at an elevated temperature.

Silky Fracture - A steel fracture that has a very smooth fine grain or silky appearance.

Silver Solders - Alloys of silver, copper, sinc and other metals, melting between 650 and 875 (degrees) C. used for making strong yet moderately ductile joints that resist corrosion.

Single-Action Press - A forming press that operates with a single function, such as moving a punch into a die with no simultaneous action for holding down the bland or ejecting the formed work.

Sintered Carbide - Composite, containing carbides of extremely refractory metals, such as tungsten, tantalum, titanium, etc., cemented together by a relatively low-melting metal, such as cobalt acing as a matrix.

Sintering - Bonding of adjacent surfaces of particles in a mass of metal powders, or in a compact, by heating

Sintering - Converting powder into a continuous mass by heating to a temperature considerably below fusion, usually after preliminary compacting by pressure.

Skelp - A piece or strip of metal produced to a suitable thickness, width, and edge configuration, from which pipe or tubing is made.

Skelp - A plate of steel or wrought iron from which pipe or tubing is made by rolling the skelp into shape longitudinally and welding or riveting the edges together.

Skin - A thin surface layer that is different from the main mass of a metal object, in composition, structure or other characteristics.

Skull - A layer of solidified metal or dross on the wall of a pouring vessel often when metal has been poured.

Slab - A piece of metal, intermediate between ingot and plate, at least twice as wide as it is thick.

Slack Quenching - The process of hardening steel by quenching from the austenitizing temperature at a rate slower than the critical cooling rate for the particular steel, resulting in incomplete hardening and the formation of one or more transformation products in addition to or instead of martensite.

Slag - A product resulting from the action of a flux on the nonmetallic constituents of a processed ore, or on the oxidized metallic constituents that are undesirable. Usually slags consist of combinations of acid oxides with basic oxides, and neutral oxides are added to aid fusibility.

Slag - A nonmetallic product resulting form mutual dissolution of flux and nonmetallic impurities in smelting and refining operations.

Slip - Plastic deformation by irreversible shear displacement of one part of a crystal relative to another in a definite crystallographic direction and on a definite crystallographic plane.

Slip Direction - The crystallographic direction in which translation of slip takes place.

Slip Line - Trace of a slip plane on a viewing surface.

Slip Plane - The crystallographic plane on which slip occurs in a crystal.

Slit Edges - The edges of sheet or strip metal resulting from cutting to width by rotary slitters.

Slitting - Cutting sheet or strip metal to width by rotary slitters.

Sliver (defect) - Loose metal piece rolled down onto the surface of the metal during the rolling operations.

Soaking - Prolonged heating of a metal at selected temperature.

Solder Embrittlement - Reduction in ductility of a metal or alloy, associated with local penetration by molten solder along grain boundaries.

Solid Solution - A single solid homogeneous crystalline phase containing two or more chemical species.

Solid Solution - A solid crystalline phase containing two or more chemical species in concentrations that may vary between limits imposed by phase equilibrium.

Solidus - In a constitutional diagram, the locus of points representing the temperatures at which various components finish freezing on cooling or begin to melt on heating.

Solute - The component of either a liquid or solid solution that is present to the lesser or minor extent; the component that is dissolved in the solvent.

Solution Heat Treatment - A heat treatment in which an alloy is heated to a suitable temperature, held at that temperature long enough to cause one or more constituents to enter into solid solution, and then cooled rapidly enough to hold these constituents in solution.

Solution Heat Treatment - Heating an alloy to a suitable temperature, holding at that temperature long enough to allow one or more constituents to enter into solid solution, and then cooling rapidly enough to hold the constituents in solution. The alloy is left in a supersaturated, unstable state, and may subsequently exhibit quench aging.

Solution Heat Treatment - A process in which an alloy is heated to a suitable temperature long enough to allow a certain constituent to enter into solid solution and is then cooled rapidly to hold the constituent in solution. The metal is left in a supersaturated, unstable state and may subsequently exhibit age hardening.

Solvent - The component of either a liquid or solid solution that is present to the greater or major extent; the component that dissolves the solute.

Solvus - In a phase or equilibrium diagram, the locus of points representing the temperature at which solid phases with various compositions coexist with other solid phases; that is, the limits of solid solubility.

Sorbitic Pearlite - Structure of steel resulting, on cooling under the proper conditions, from the decomposition of austenite; has a fine, lamellar appearance.

Space Lattice (crystal) - A system of equivalent points formed by the intersections of three sets of planes parallel to pairs of principal axes; the space lattice may be thought of as formed by the corners of the unit cells.

Space-Centered (concerning space lattices) - Body-centered.

Spalling - The cracking and flaking of particles out of a surface.

Specific Gravity - A numerical value representing the weight of a given substance as compared with the weight of an equal volume of water, for which the specific gravity is taken as 1.0000.

Spectograph - An optical instrument for determining the presence or concentration of minor metallic constituents in a material by indicating the presence and intensity of specific wave lengths of radiation when the material is thermally or electrically excited.

Spectograph (X-rays) - An instrument using an extended surface -- a photographic plate or film, or a fluorescent screen -- for receiving the X-ray diffraction pattern.

Spelter (Prime Western Spelter) - A low-grade of Virgin Zinc containing approximately 98% Zinc used in Galvanizing processes.

Speroidizing - Heating and cooling to produce a spheroidal or globular form of carbide in steel. Spheroidizing methods frequently used are: 1. Prolonged holding at a temperature just below Ae1. 2. Heating and cooling alternately between temperatures that are just below Ae1. . 3. Heating to temperature above Ae1 or Ae3 and then cooling very slowly in the furnace or holding at a temperature just below Ae1. 4. Cooling at a suitable rate from the minimum temperature at which all carbide is dissolved, to prevent the reformation of a carbide network, and then re-heating in accordance with methods 1 or 2 above. (Applicable to hypereutectoid steel containing a carbide network.

Speroidizing Annealing - A subcritical annealing treatment intended to produce spheroidization of cementite or other carbide phases.

Spheroidized Structure - A microstructure consisting of a matrix containing spheroidal particles of another constituent.

Spheroidizing - Any process of prolonged heating and slow cooling of steel which will convey the carbide content into rounded or spheroid form.

Spheroidizing - Heating and cooling to produce a spheroidal or globular form of carbide in steel.

Spiegel - High-manganese pig iron, containing 15-30% manganese, approximately 5% carbon, and less than 1% silicon used in the manufacture of steel by the Bessemer, or basic open-hearth process.

Spinning - The procedure of making sheet metal discs into hollow shapes by pressing the metal against a rotating form (spinning chuck) by a tool.

Spot Welding - Welding of lapped parts in which fusion is confined to a relatively small circular area. It is generally resistance welding, but may also be gas-shielded tungsten-arc, gas-shielded metal-arc, or submerged-arc welding.

Spring Steel Strip - Any of a number of strip steels produced for use in the manufacture of steel springs or where high tensile properties are required marketed in the annealed state, hard rolled or as hardened and tempered strip.

Spring Temper - In brass mill terminology, Spring Temper is eight numbers hard or 60.50% reduction.

Stabilizing Treatment - A thermal treatment designed to precipitate material from solid solution, in order to improve the workability, to decrease the tendency of certain alloys to age harden at room temperature, or to obtain dimensional stability under service at slightly elevated temperatures.

Stablizing Treatment - Any treatment intended to stabilize the structure of an alloy of the dimensions of a part. (1) Heating austenitic stainless steels that contain titanium, columbium, or tantalum to a suitable temperature below that of a full anneal in order to inactivate the maximum amount of carbon by precipitation as a carbide of titanium, columbium, or tantalum. (2) Transforming retained austenite in parts made from tool steel. (3) Precipitating a constituent from a nonferrous solid solution to improve the workability, to decrease the tendency of certain alloys to age harden at room temperature, or to obtain dimensional stability.

Stainless Steel - Corrosion resistant steel of a wide variety, but always containing a high percentage of chromium. These are highly resistant to corrosion attack by organic acids, weak mineral acids, atmospheric oxidation, etc.

Stamping - A term used to refer to various press forming operations in coining, embossing, blanking, and pressing.

Steel - An iron-base alloy, malleable in some temperature range as initially cast, containing maganease, usually carbon, and often other alloying elements. In carbon steel and low-alloy steel, the maximum carbon is about 2.0%; in high-alloy steel, about 2.5%. The dividing line between low-alloy and high-alloy steels is generally regarded as being at about 5% metallic alloying elements. Steel is to be differentiated from two general classes of irons: the cast irons, on the high-carbon side, and the relatively pure irons such as ingot iron, carbonyl iron, and electrolytic iron, on the low-carbon side. In some steels containing extremely low carbon, the maganese content is the principal differentiating factor, steel usually containing at least 0.25%; ingot iron contains considerably less.

Steel - Iron, malleable in at least one range of temperature below its melting point without special heat treatment, substantially free from slag, and containing carbon bore than about 0.05% and less than about 2.00%. Other alloying elements may be present in significant quantities, but all steels contain at least small amounts of manganese and silicon, and usually as undesirable constituents.

Sterling Silver - A silver alloy containing at least 95.2% Ag, the remainder being unspecified but usually copper.

Strain - A measure of the relative change in the size of a body. Linear strain is the change per unit length of a linear dimension. True (or natural) strain is the natural logarithm of the ratio of the length at the moment of observation to the original gauge length. Shearing strain is the change in angle (expressed in radians) between two reference lines originally at right angles. When the term is used alone, it usually refers to linear strain in the direction of the applied stress.

Strain - A measure of the change in the size or shape of a body, referred to its original size or shape. Linear strain is the change per unit length of a linear dimension. True strain (or natural strain) is the natural logarithm of the ratio of the length at the moment of observation to the original gauge length. Conventional strain is the linear strain referred to the original gauge length. Shearing strain (or shear strain) is the change in angle (expressed in radians) between two lines originally at right angles. When the term strain is used alone it usually refers to the linear strain in the direction of the applied stress.

Strain - Deformation produced on a body by an outside force.

Strain Aging - Aging induced by cold work.

Strain Aging - Aging induced by cold working.

Strain Hardening - An increase in hardness and strength caused by plastic deformation at temperatures lower than the recrystallization range.

Strain Hardening - An increase in hardness and strength caused by p;astic deformation at temperatures below the recrystallization range.

Stress - Force per unit area. True stress denotes stress determined by measuring force and area at the same time. Conventional stress, as applied to tension and compression tests, is force divided by original area. Nominal stress is stress computed by simple elasticity formula.

Stress - Deforming force to which a body is subjected, or, the resistance which the body offers to deformation by the force.

Stress Relief - Low temperature annealing for removing internal stresses, such as those resulting on a metal from work hardening or quenching.

Stress Relieving - Heating to a suitable temperature, holding long enough to reduce residual stresses and then cooling slowly enough to minimize the development of new residual stresses.

Stress-corrosion Cracking - Failure by cracking under the combined action of corrosion and stress, either external (applied) or internal (residual). Cracking may be either intergranular or transgranular, depending on the metal and the corrosive medium.

Stress-Corrosion Cracking - Failure by cracking under combined action or corrosion and stress, either external (applied) or internal (residual). Cracking may be either intergranular or transgranular, depends on metal and corrosive medium.

Stretcher Leveling - A method of making metal sheet or strip dead flat by stretching.

Stretcher Strains - Elongated markings that appear on the surface of some materials when deformed just past the yield point. These markings lie approximately parallel to the direction of maximum shear stress and are the result of localized yielding Same as Luders lines.

Stretcher Strains - Elongated markings that appear on the surfaces of some materials when they are deformed just past the yield point. These markings lie approximately parallel to the direction of maximum shear stress and are the result of localized yielding.

Strip - A sheet of metal whose length is many times its width.

Strip Steel (cold rolled) - A flat cold rolled steel product (Other than Flat Wire) 23 15/16 and narrower; under .250 in thickness, which has been cold reduced to desired decimal thickness and temper on single stand, single stand reversing, or tandem cold mills in coil form from coiled hot rolled pickled strip steel.

Structure - The arangement of parts; in crystals, expecially, the shape and dimension of the until cell, and the number, kinds and positions of the atoms within it.

Sub-boundary Structure (subgrain structure) - A network of low-angle boundaries (usually with misorientations or less than one degree) within the main grains of a microstructure.

Subcritical Annealing - An annealing treatment in which a steel is heated to a temperature below the A1 temperature and then cooled slowly to room temperature.

Substitutional Solid Solution - A solid solution in which the solvent and solute atoms are located randomly at the atom sites in the crystal structure of the solution.

Substrate - The layer of metal underlying a coating, regardless of whether the layer is base metal.

Sulfide Spheroidization - A stage of overheating in which sulfide inclusions are partly or completely spheroidized.

Sulfur - Chemical symbol S) Element No. 16 of the periodic system; atomic weight 32.06. Non-metal occurring in a number of allotropic modifications, the most common being a pale-yellow brittle solid. In steel most commonly encountered as an undesired contaminant. However, it is frequently deliberately added to cutting stock, to increase machinability.

Sulfur Print - A macrographic method of examining distribution of sulfide inclusions.

Superalloy - An alloy developed for very high temperature service where relatively high stresses (tensile, thermal, vibratory, and shock) are encountered and where oxidation resistance is frequently required.

Supercooling - Cooling to a temperature below that of an equilibrium phase transformation without the transformation taking place.