Stainless Steel 431

General Characteristics of Stainless 431

Stainless 431 is a machinable and workable steel with added nickel that toughens it while eliminating unwelcome delta ferrite. Its corrosion resistance makes it ideal for marine and aircraft applications.

Chemical Composition of Stainless 431

  • Carbon 0.20 max
  • Manganese 1.00 max
  • Phosphorus 0.04 max
  • Sulfur 0.03 max
  • Silicon 1.00 max
  • Nickel 1.25-2.50
  • Chromium 15.0-17.0
  • Iron balance

Heat Treatment of Stainless 431

  • Process anneal at 1150° to 1225°F (621° to 663°C) before air cooling
  • Harden by heating to 1800° to 1950°F (982° to 1066°C) for 30 minutes, then oil quench
  • Temper by heating to 400° to 1200°F (204° to 649°C), then air cool
  • Heat to 800° to 1700°F (427° to 927°C) to help eliminate stress corrosion cracking.
  • Avoid intergranular corrosion by performing stress relief from 450° to 750°F (232° to 399°C)

Applications of Stainless 431

  • Marine components
  • Aircraft parts

Machinability of Stainless 431

  • Carbide tools recommended
  • Machine with carbide tools at higher speeds than high-speed tools

Workability of Stainless 431

  • Forge and hot form from 1500° to 2150°F (816° to 1177°C)
  • Easy to cold work sheet and small bars
  • Extreme flanging and bending of heavy pieces at 1350° to 1550°F (732° to 843°C)

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