Carbon Steel 1050
0.48 – 0.55
0.60 – 0.90 max
General characteristics of Carbon Steel 1050
C1050 is a medium carbon, medium tensile steel with reasonable strength and toughness.
This grade of steel is used for the manufacture of forged shafts and gears and for a wide range of applications that can make use of its attainable mechanical properties.
C1050 is forged from 2200ºF (1205ºC) down to a temperature in the range 1650-1700ºF (900-925ºC.). The actual forging and finishing temperatures will depend on a number of factors, including overall reduction during forging and complexity of part being forged. Experience alone will determine near exact values for these two parameters.
Parts are air cooled after forging.
Full annealing of small C1050 forgings is carried out from 1450-1600ºF (790-870ºC)
followed by furnace cooling at 50ºF (28ºC) per hour, to 1200ºF (650ºC) soaking and air cooling.
The normalizing temperature range for this grade is typically 1650-1700ºF (900-925ºC.)
Normalizing is followed by cooling in still air. When forgings are normalized before hardening and tempering or other heat treatment, the upper range of the normalizing temperature is used. When normalizing is the final treatment, the lower temperature range is used.
Hardening of this grade is carried out from an austenitizing temperature of 1500-1600ºF (820-870ºC) followed by oil or water quenching.
Flame and induction hardening may be carried out by heating quickly to the desired case depth and quenching in water or oil. This should be followed by a tempering treatment at 300-400ºF (150-200ºC) to reduce stresses in the case, without affecting its hardness. A surface hardness as high as Rc 61 may be obtained from C1050 by this treatment.
Tempering after normal hardening and oil or water quenching is carried out at 750-1260º F (400-680ºC) to give the required mechanical properties as determined by practical experience.
Machinability of C1050 is good providing the full annealing cycle described above is used, A coarse lamellar pearlite to coarse spheroidite microstructure gives optimum machinability in C1050.
This grade is readily welded with the correct procedure. Welding in the through-hardened or flame or induction-hardened conditions is not recommended.
Low-hydrogen electrodes are recommended together with preheat at 300-800ºF (150-430ºC to be maintained during welding, Cool slowly in sand or ashes and stress relieve where possible. It may be that in certain instances normalizing may be called for after welding.
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