Low-Carbon Steels 1022, 1023, 1025 and 1026

Low-Carbon Steels 1022, 1023, 1025 and 1026

General Characteristics of Low-Carbon Steels 1022, 1023, 1025 and 1026

These grades are general purpose low-carbon steels that are easily machined and welded and may be hardened by carburizing and by other surface-hardening methods.

C% Mn% P% S%
Chemical Analysis: 1022 0.18/0.23 0.70/1.00 0.040 max 0.050 max
Chemical Analysis: 1023 0.20/0.25 0.30/0.60 0.040 max 0.050 max
Chemical Analysis: 1025 0.22/0.28 0.30/0.60 0.040 max 0.050 max
Chemical Analysis: 1026 0.22/0.28 0.60/0.90 0.040 max 0.050 max

Applications

These steels are used for forged motor shafts, hydraulic shafts and pump shafts, as well as for machinery parts.

Forging

These grades of steel are forged from around 2250ºF down to a temperature in the region of 1650ºF (1230ºC down to 900ºC.). The actual forging and finishing temperatures will depend on a number of factors, including overall reduction during forging and complexity of part being forged.
Experience alone will determine near exact values for these two parameters.
Parts are air cooled after forging.

Heat treatment

At this carbon level, annealing after forging may not be necessary, and depending upon the hardness after forging and the complexity of the part being forged, machining may be carried out on the as-forged parts. If parts are of complex shape and hence there are structural variations throughout the part, then normalizing is in order.

Normalizing may be carried out prior to case hardening, at 1650-1700ºF (900-925ºC,) or in the event of variations in microstructure resulting from forging of a complex shape.

Other heat treatment for these steels will involve carburizing or other surface hardening treatments, followed by hardening from a temperature in the region of 1400-1450ºF (760 -790ºC.) Large parts of simple shape will be water quenched, all others oil quenched.

Tempering

A tempering treatment at 340-410ºF (170-210ºC,) which more or less amounts to a stress relief, may be carried out following hardening. Any further tempering temperatures, to achieve required properties, will be based upon experience.

Machinability

Good machinability is obtained on these grades in the as-forged or normalized conditions. The need for a normalizing treatment, as mentioned above, will be determined by a number of factors, including as-forged hardness and complexity of part.

Weldability

Welding of these grades may be carried out by all normal fusion methods, preferably using low-carbon electrodes.

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