Category Archives: Alloy Steel

AISI / Alloy Steel 8640

Chemical Analysis
C% Carbon
0.38 – 0.43
Mn% Manganese
0.75 – 1.00 max
P% Phosphorus
0.040 max
S% Sulfur
0.040 max
Si% Silicon
0.20 – 0.35
Ni% Nickel
0.40 – 0.70
Cr% Chromium
0.40 – 0.60
Mo% Molybdenum
0.15 – 0.25

General characteristics of Alloy Steel 8640

Alloy steel 8640 is a low-alloy steel containing nickel, chromium and molybdenum as alloying elements. The alloy has good hardenability, and good strength and toughness properties.

Applications

This alloy finds its uses in applications where strength, toughness and wear resistance are of prime importance. It is widely used as high-strength forged fasteners.

Forging

This alloy is forged at a start temperature of around 2200ºF (1205ºC) and could be forged down to approximately 1700ºF(925ºC.) The alloy is best slow cooled after forging, but may also be transferred to a furnace held at a temperature approximating the forging finishing temperature, soaked then air cooled.

Heat treatment

Annealing:For optimum machinabilty of this alloy, a microstructure consisting of coarse lamellar pearlite to coarse spheroidite is considered to be optimum. Such a structure can be obtained by austenitizing at 1525ºF (830ºC), furnace cooling to 1340ºF (725ºC) then to 1180ºF (640º) at 20ºF/hr. An alternative is an iso-anneal at 1225ºF (660ºC)

Normalizing:1600ºF (870ºC) and air cool.

Hardening:The alloy will be austenitized at around 1525 – 1575ºF (830 – 855ºC) and oil or water quenched depending upon section size and intricacy.

Tempering:: to desired hardness, using temperatures based on past experience, following water or oil quench.

Machinability:This grade of alloy is readily machined following suitable heat treatment.

Weldability:This steel may be welded by normal fusion methods, but prior to hardening and tempering. Pre heat and post heat are recommended.

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AISI / Alloy Steel 8630

Chemical Analysis
C% Carbon
0.28 – 0.33
Mn% Manganese
0.70 – 0.90
P% Phosphorus
0.040 max
S% Sulfur
0.040 max
Si% Silicon
0.20 – 0.35
Ni% Nickel
0.40 – 0.70
Cr% Chromium
0.40 – 0.60
Mo% Molybdenum
0.15 – 0.25

General characteristics of Alloy Steel 8630

Alloy steel 8630 is a low-alloy steel containing nickel, chromium and molybdenum as alloying elements. The alloy has good hardenability, and good strength and toughness properties.

Applications

This alloy finds oil patch applications as forged connectors, hangers and block valves.

Forging

This alloy is forged at a start temperature of around 2200ºF (1205ºC) and could be forged down to approximately 1700ºF(925ºC.) The alloy may be transferred to a furnace held at a temperature approximating the forging finishing temperature, soaked then air cooled.

Heat treatment

Annealing:For optimum machinabilty of this alloy, a microstructure consisting of coarse pearlite and a minimum of ferrite is considered to be optimum. Such a structure can be obtained by austenitizing at 1550ºF (845ºC), furnace cooling to 1350ºF (730ºC) then to 1180ºF (640º) at 20ºF/hr. An alternative is an iso-anneal at 1225ºF (660ºC)

Normalizing:1600ºF (870ºC) and air cool.

Hardening:The alloy will be austenitized at around 1525 – 1600ºF (830 – 870ºC) and oil or water quenched depending upon section size and intricacy.

Tempering:to desired hardness, using temperatures based on past experience, following water or oil quench.

Machinability:This grade of alloy is readily machined following suitable heat treatment.

Weldability:This steel may be welded by normal fusion methods, but prior to hardening and tempering. Pre heat and post heat may be necessary depending upon intricacy of part.

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AISI / Alloy Steel 8620

Chemical Analysis
C% Carbon
0.18 – 0.23
Mn% Manganese
0.70 – 090
P% Phosphorus
0.040 max
S% Sulfur
0.040 max
Si% Silicon
0.20 – 0.35
Ni% Nickel
0.40 – 0.70
Cr% Chromium
0.40 – 0.60
Mo% Molybdenum
0.15 – 0.25

General characteristics of Alloy Steel 8620

Alloy steel 8620 is a case-hardening steel containing nickel, chromium and molybdenum as alloying elements. The alloy shows good strength and toughness properties, and has a higher core strength than grades 8615 and 8617.

Applications

This alloy may be used in the production of medium-strength parts such as forged camshafts, fasteners and gears.

Forging

This alloy is forged at a start temperature of around 2250ºF (1230ºC) and could be forged down to approximately 1700ºF(925ºC.) The alloy is air cooled after forging.

Heat treatment

Annealing:For optimum machinabilty, an as-forged structure is normally sufficient for this grade of alloy steel. If this proves not to be the case then an iso-anneal from around 1650ºF (900ºC) to 1225ºF (660ºC) will improve machinability.

Normalizing:1675ºF (910ºC) and air cool. This is another method of improving machinability in this grade; normalizing might also be used prior to case hardening.

Hardening:The alloy will be austenitized at around 1525ºF (830ºC) and oil or water quenched depending upon section size and intricacy.

Tempering:to desired hardness, using temperatures based on past experience, following water or oil quench.

Machinability:This grade of alloy is readily machined following suitable cooling from forging or subsequent heat treatment.

Weldability:This steel may be welded by normal fusion methods, but prior to carburizing or hardening and tempering.

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AISI / Alloy Steel 8617

Chemical Analysis
C% Carbon
0.15 – 0.20
Mn% Manganese
0.70 – 0.90
P% Phosphorus
0.040 max
S% Sulfur
0.040 max
Si% Silicon
0.20 – 0.35
Ni% Nickel
0.40 – 0.70
Cr% Chromium
0.40 – 0.60
Mo% Molybdenum
0.15 – 0.25

General characteristics of Alloy Steel 8617

Alloy steel 8617 is a case-hardening steel containing nickel, chromium and molybdenum as alloying elements. The alloy shows good strength and toughness properties, and has a slightly higher core strength than grade 8615.

Applications

This alloy may be used in the production of medium-strength parts such as forged camshafts, fasteners and gears.

Forging

This alloy is forged at a start temperature of around 2250ºF (1230ºC) and could be forged down to approximately 1700ºF(925ºC.) The alloy is air cooled after forging.

Heat treatment

Annealing:For optimum machinabilty, an as-forged structure is normally sufficient for this grade of alloy steel. If this proves not to be the case then an iso-anneal from around 1650ºF (900ºC) to 1225ºF (660ºC) will improve machinability.

Normalizing:1700ºF (925ºC) and air cool. This is another method of improving machinability in this grade; normalizing might also be used prior to case hardening.

Hardening:The alloy will be austenitized at around 1550ºF (840ºC) and oil or water quenched depending upon section size and intricacy.

Tempering:to desired hardness, using temperatures based on past experience, following water or oil quench.

Machinability:This grade of alloy is readily machined following suitable cooling from forging or subsequent heat treatment.

Weldability:This steel may be welded by normal fusion methods, but prior to carburizing or hardening and tempering.

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AISI / Alloy Steel 8615

Chemical Analysis
C% Carbon
0.13 – 0.18
Mn% Manganese
0.70 – 0.90
P% Phosphorus
0.040 max
S% Sulfur
0.040 max
Si% Silicon
0.20 – 0.35
Ni% Nickel
0.40 – 0.70
Cr% Chromium
0.40 – 0.60
Mo% Molybdenum
0.15 – 0.25

General characteristics of Alloy Steel 8615

Alloy steel 8615 is a case-hardening steel containing nickel, chromium and molybdenum as alloying elements. The alloy shows good strength and toughness properties.

Applications

Alloy 8615 is principally a carburizing grade of steel. As such it finds medium-strength applications where high surface hardness and high core toughness are required. The alloy finds uses as forged shafts and bearings in the aerospace and automotive industries.

Forging

This alloy is forged at a start temperature of around 2250ºF (1230ºC) and could be forged down to approximately 1700ºF (925ºC.) The alloy is air cooled after forging.

Heat treatment

Annealing: For optimum machinabilty, an as-forged structure is normally sufficient for this grade of alloy steel. If this proves not to be the case then an iso-anneal from around 1650ºF (900ºC) to 1225ºF (660ºC) will improve machinability.

Normalizing: 1700ºF (925ºC) and air cool. This is another method of improving machinability in this grade; normalizing might also be used prior to case hardening.

Hardening: The alloy will be austenitized at around 1550ºF (840ºC) and oil or water quenched depending upon section size and intricacy.

Temper: to desired hardness, using temperatures based on past experience, following water or oil quench.

Machinability: This grade of alloy is readily machined following suitable cooling from forging or subsequent heat treatment.

Weldability: This steel may be welded by normal fusion methods, but prior to carburizing or hardening and tempering.

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 Alloy Steel 5150

Chemical Analysis
C% Carbon
0.48 – 0.53
Mn% Manganese
0.70 – 0.90 max
P% Phosphorus
0.040 max
S% Sulfur
0.040 max
Si% Silicon
0.20 – 0.35
Cr% Chromium
0.70 – 0.90

General characteristics of Alloy Steel 5150

Alloy 5150 is a medium-carbon, chromium steel with good strength, toughness and hardenability

Applications

This alloy is used in the production of fprged components that are subjected to normal stresses for automotive and general engineering.

Forging

This alloy would be forged between 2150 and 1600ºF ( 1175 and 870ºC.) The alloy should be slow cooled after forging or transferred to a furnace around the ‘finishing’ temperature.

Heat treatment

Annealing:The microstructure for this alloy to give optimum machinability is one of course lamellar pearlite to coarse spheroidite. This might be obtained by austenitizing at 1380ºF (750ºC) followed by an iso anneal at 1250ºF (680ºC.)

Normalizing: A nominal normalizing temperature for this alloy is 1600ºF (870ºC.) This treatment is followed by air cooling

Hardening: Austenitize at 1475-1550ºF (800-845) and oil quench for small, intricate sections and water quench for large, simple sections.

Tempering: from 1000-1250ºF(540-680ºC) as per required properties.

Machinability: This alloy is readily machined from a coarse pearlite to a coarse spheroidite microstructure.

Weldability: The alloy may be welded but must be preheated and if possible the preheat should be maintained during welding. Welding should be carried out in the annealed condition, not on hardened and tempered material.

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Alloy Steel 5120

Chemical Analysis
C% Carbon
0.17 – 0.22
Mn% Manganese
0.70 – 0.90 max
P% Phosphorus
0.040 max
S% Sulfur
0.040 max
Si% Silicon
0.20 – 0.35
Cr% Chromium
0.70 – 0.90

General characteristics of Alloy Steel 5120

This is a low-carbon chromium-bearing, case-hardening alloy steel used where good wear resistance and toughness are required.

Applications

This alloy is used for highly stressed parts with medium cross sections for automotive and general engineering applications, such as forged camshafts and gears, gear shafts, bushings and connecting rods.

Forging

This alloy would be forged between 2200 and 1700ºF (1200 and 925ºC.)

Heat treatment

Annealing: This alloy is seldom annealed. Structures of better machinability are developed by normalizing or by isothermal transformation after forging.

Normalizing: 1650-1700ºF (900-930ºC.)

Carburizing: 1650-1740ºF (900-950ºC) and oil quench.

Hardening: Core: 1560-1620ºF (850-880ºC) and oil quench. Case: 1490-1540ºF (810-840ºC) and oil quench

Tempering: 340-410ºF (170-210ºC.)

Machinability: The alloy is best machined in the normalized condition prior to case hardening.

Weldability: The alloy is easily welded, but should be welded prior to case hardening.

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Alloy Steel AISI 4720

 General Characteristics of AISI 4720

This is a nickel-chromium-molybdenum case-hardening alloy designed for good strength, wear-resistance and toughness properties.

C% Mn% P% S% Si% Cr% Ni% Mo%
0.17/0.22 0.50/0.70 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.20/0.35 0.35/0.55 0.90/1,20 0.15/0.25

Applications
The alloy is used in the production of forged gears and shafting where full advantage may be taken of its case-hardened and heat-treated condition.

Forging
The alloy is forged at a temperature in the region of 2200ºF (1205ºC) and subsequently air cooled. It may be forged down to a temperature of approximately 1700ºF (925ºC.)

Heat Treatment

Annealing: The alloy is rarely annealed as optimum machinability, prior to case hardening and subsequent harden and temper, is obtained in a forged or a normalized structure.

Normalizing: This alloy would be normalized prior to case hardening or hardening and tempering. This operation is particularly recommended in cases where certain areas of the forged part show differing microstructures. The normalizing operation results in all the various structural components being re-dissolved in austenite, thus ensuring a uniform structure upon air cooling from the normalizing temperature, which in this case would be in the region of 1700ºF (925ºC.)

 Hardening: The austenitizing temperature for this alloy prior to quenching is 1500-1550ºF (815-845ºC), followed by quenching in oil or water depending upon section size and complexity of part.

Tempering: Parts would be tempered at a temperature that would normally be based upon past experience, a temperature that would give the required mechanical properties.

Machinability
The alloy is readily machinable, providing the appropriate heat treatments are employed.

 Weldability
This alloy is readily weldable by normal fusion methods, but should always be welded prior to carburizing and other heat treatments.

AISI / Alloy Steel 4640

Chemical Analysis
C% Carbon
0.38 – 0.43
Mn% Manganese
0.45 – 0.65
P% Phosphorus
0.040 max
S% Sulfur
0.040 max
Si% Silicon
0.20 – 0.35
Ni% Nickel
1.65 – 2.00
Mo% Molybdenum
0.2 – 0.3

General characteristics of Alloy Steel 4640

This alloy is a nickel-bearing steel showing good hardenability, strength and toughness. The alloy may be heat treated to high strength levels.

Applications

The alloy is used in applications where combinations of strength and toughness are required, but where somewhat higher strength than that obtained from 4630 grade is required. Forged parts are made from this alloy for the oil and gas industry, including components for offshore drilling rigs.

Forging

The alloy would be forged between 2150 and 1700ºF (1175 and 925ºC.) Parts would preferably be slow cooled or transferred to an equalization furnace.

Heat treatment

Annealing: For optimum machinability, this alloy would be austenitized at 1575ºF (860ºC) cooled to 1320ºF(715°C) then to 1110ºF (600ºC) at 15ºF per hr. This will give a coarse pearlitic structure. An alternative is an iso-anneal at 1150ºF (620ºC) for 8 hours.

Normalizing: 1600-1650ºF (870-900ºC.) followed by air cool.

Hardening:1500 – 1600ºF (815 – 870ºC), followed by water or oil quench depending upon size and intricacy of part.

Tempering : At temperatures based on past experience.

Machinability: The grade is readily machinable providing correctly heat treated.

Weldability:The alloy is readily welded by all fusion processes, but should be welded prior to any heat treatment. Pre and post weld heat are recommended.

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AISI / Alloy Steel 4630

Chemical Analysis
C% Carbon
0.28 – 0.33
Mn% Manganese
0.45 – 0.65
P% Phosphorus
0.040 max
S% Sulfur
0.040 max
Si% Silicon
0.20 – 0.35
Ni% Nickel
1.65 – 2.00
Mo% Molybdenum
0.2 – 0.3

General characteristics of Alloy Steel 4630

This alloy is a nickel-bearing steel showing good hardenability, strength and toughness. The alloy may be heat treated to high strength levels.

Applications

The alloy is used in applications where combinations of strength and toughness are required. Forged parts are made from this alloy for the oil and gas industry, including components for offshore drilling rigs.

Forging

The alloy would be forged between 2150 and 1700ºF (1175 and 925ºC.) Parts would preferably be slow cooled or transferred to an equalization furnace.

Heat treatment

Annealing: For optimum machinability, this alloy would be austenitized at 1575ºF (860ºC) cooled to 1320ºF(715°C) then to 1110ºF (600ºC) at 15ºF per hr. This will give a coarse pearlitic structure. An alternative is an iso-anneal at 1150ºF (620ºC) for 8 hours.

Normalizing:1600-1650ºF (870-900ºC.) followed by air cool

Hardening: 1500 – 1600ºF (815 – 870ºC), followed by water or oil quench depending upon size and intricacy of part.

Tempering :At temperatures based on past experience.

Machinability: The grade is readily machinable providing correctly heat treated.

Weldability: The alloy is readily welded by all fusion processes, but should be welded prior to any heat treatment. Pre and post-weld heat may be required.

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